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Pectobacterium aroidearum and Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum as causal agents of potato soft rot in Lebanon

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Abstract
To identify bacteria causing severe soft rot on potato in Lebanon, pectinolytic bacteria were isolated from diseased samples collected in the Bekaa valley and the Akkar region, during 2009-2010. Six isolates that induced a hypersensitive reaction in tobacco plants and caused a marked soft rot when inoculated in potato tubers or stem, DAPP-PG 752 to DAPP-PG 757, were further characterized. Analysis of 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer-regions, digested with RsaI and CfoI, demonstrated that isolates DAPP-PG 753 to DAPP-PG 757 showed electrophoretic profiles similar to that of LMG 2408, a strain misclassified as Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, and different from that of DAPP-PG 752. Phylogenetic analysis using partial malate dehydrogenase gene sequences, clustered DAPP-PG 752 in a clade that contained the type strain of P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, while DAPP-PG 753 to DAPP-PG 757, together with LMG 2408, fell in a clade including strains of the recently described species Pectobacterium aroidearum. Multilocus sequence analysis of concatenated partial sequences of the atpD, gyrB, infB and rpoB genes confirmed the results obtained with the mdh gene sequences and identified DAPP-PG 752 as P. carotovorum, and LMG 2408 and the five related Lebanese isolates as P. aroidearum. The Lebanese P. aroidearum isolates were phenotypically similar to known P. aroidearum strains, based on API 50 CHE data. They showed identical BOX- and ERIC-PCR profiles that resembled profiles of known P. aroidearum strains. This study represents the first official report of P. aroidearum as causal agent of soft rot on potato plants and the first occurrence of P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum on potato plants in Lebanon.
Keywords
GENETIC DIVERSITY, NEW-ZEALAND, DIFFERENTIATION, ENTEROBACTERIA, IDENTIFICATION, ERWINIAS, DISEASE, GENOMES, ACID, Lebanon, Soft-rotting bacteria, Solanum tuberosum

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MLA
Moretti, Chiaraluce et al. “Pectobacterium Aroidearum and Pectobacterium Carotovorum Subsp. Carotovorum as Causal Agents of Potato Soft Rot in Lebanon.” EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PLANT PATHOLOGY 144.1 (2016): 205–211. Print.
APA
Moretti, C., Fakhr, R., Cortese, C., De Vos, P., Cerri, M., Geagea, L., Cleenwerck, I., et al. (2016). Pectobacterium aroidearum and Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum as causal agents of potato soft rot in Lebanon. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PLANT PATHOLOGY, 144(1), 205–211.
Chicago author-date
Moretti, Chiaraluce, Rim Fakhr, Chiara Cortese, Paul De Vos, Martina Cerri, Leila Geagea, Ilse Cleenwerck, and Roberto Buonaurio. 2016. “Pectobacterium Aroidearum and Pectobacterium Carotovorum Subsp. Carotovorum as Causal Agents of Potato Soft Rot in Lebanon.” European Journal of Plant Pathology 144 (1): 205–211.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Moretti, Chiaraluce, Rim Fakhr, Chiara Cortese, Paul De Vos, Martina Cerri, Leila Geagea, Ilse Cleenwerck, and Roberto Buonaurio. 2016. “Pectobacterium Aroidearum and Pectobacterium Carotovorum Subsp. Carotovorum as Causal Agents of Potato Soft Rot in Lebanon.” European Journal of Plant Pathology 144 (1): 205–211.
Vancouver
1.
Moretti C, Fakhr R, Cortese C, De Vos P, Cerri M, Geagea L, et al. Pectobacterium aroidearum and Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum as causal agents of potato soft rot in Lebanon. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PLANT PATHOLOGY. 2016;144(1):205–11.
IEEE
[1]
C. Moretti et al., “Pectobacterium aroidearum and Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum as causal agents of potato soft rot in Lebanon,” EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PLANT PATHOLOGY, vol. 144, no. 1, pp. 205–211, 2016.
@article{8526046,
  abstract     = {To identify bacteria causing severe soft rot on potato in Lebanon, pectinolytic bacteria were isolated from diseased samples collected in the Bekaa valley and the Akkar region, during 2009-2010. Six isolates that induced a hypersensitive reaction in tobacco plants and caused a marked soft rot when inoculated in potato tubers or stem, DAPP-PG 752 to DAPP-PG 757, were further characterized. Analysis of 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer-regions, digested with RsaI and CfoI, demonstrated that isolates DAPP-PG 753 to DAPP-PG 757 showed electrophoretic profiles similar to that of LMG 2408, a strain misclassified as Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, and different from that of DAPP-PG 752. Phylogenetic analysis using partial malate dehydrogenase gene sequences, clustered DAPP-PG 752 in a clade that contained the type strain of P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, while DAPP-PG 753 to DAPP-PG 757, together with LMG 2408, fell in a clade including strains of the recently described species Pectobacterium aroidearum. Multilocus sequence analysis of concatenated partial sequences of the atpD, gyrB, infB and rpoB genes confirmed the results obtained with the mdh gene sequences and identified DAPP-PG 752 as P. carotovorum, and LMG 2408 and the five related Lebanese isolates as P. aroidearum. The Lebanese P. aroidearum isolates were phenotypically similar to known P. aroidearum strains, based on API 50 CHE data. They showed identical BOX- and ERIC-PCR profiles that resembled profiles of known P. aroidearum strains. This study represents the first official report of P. aroidearum as causal agent of soft rot on potato plants and the first occurrence of P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum on potato plants in Lebanon.},
  author       = {Moretti, Chiaraluce and Fakhr, Rim and Cortese, Chiara and De Vos, Paul and Cerri, Martina and Geagea, Leila and Cleenwerck, Ilse and Buonaurio, Roberto},
  issn         = {0929-1873},
  journal      = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PLANT PATHOLOGY},
  keywords     = {GENETIC DIVERSITY,NEW-ZEALAND,DIFFERENTIATION,ENTEROBACTERIA,IDENTIFICATION,ERWINIAS,DISEASE,GENOMES,ACID,Lebanon,Soft-rotting bacteria,Solanum tuberosum},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {205--211},
  title        = {Pectobacterium aroidearum and Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum as causal agents of potato soft rot in Lebanon},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10658-015-0743-3},
  volume       = {144},
  year         = {2016},
}

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