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Strigolactones, karrikins and beyond

Carolien De Cuyper (UGent) , Sylwia Magdalena Struk (UGent) , Lukas Braem (UGent) , Kris Gevaert (UGent) , Geert De Jaeger (UGent) and Sofie Goormachtig (UGent)
(2017) PLANT CELL AND ENVIRONMENT. 40(9). p.1691-1703
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Abstract
The plant hormones strigolactones are synthesized from carotenoids and signal via the alpha/beta hydrolase DWARF 14 (D14) and the F-box protein MORE AXILLARY GROWTH 2 (MAX2). Karrikins, molecules produced upon fire, share MAX2 for signalling, but depend on the D14 paralog KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE 2 (KAI2) for perception with strong evidence that the MAX2-KAI2 protein complex might also recognize so far unknown plant-made karrikin-like molecules. Thus, the phenotypes of the max2 mutants are the complex consequence of a loss of both D14-dependent and KAI2-dependent signalling, hence, the reason why some biological roles, attributed to strigolactones based on max2 phenotypes, could never be observed in d14 or in the strigolactone-deficient max3 and max4 mutants. Moreover, the broadly used synthetic strigolactone analog rac-GR24 has been shown to mimic strigolactone as well as karrikin(-like) signals, providing an extra level of complexity in the distinction of the unique and common roles of both molecules in plant biology. Here, a critical overview is provided of the diverse biological processes regulated by strigolactones and/or karrikins. These two growth regulators are considered beyond their boundaries, and the importance of the yet unknown karrikin-like molecules is discussed as well.
Keywords
hormone signalling, karrikins, MAX2, strigolactones, ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI, BOX PROTEIN MAX2, ARABIDOPSIS SEED-GERMINATION, PLANT-GROWTH REGULATORS, PARASITIC WEED STRIGA, SYNTHETIC ANALOGS, LEAF SENESCENCE, ACTS DOWNSTREAM, BUD OUTGROWTH, STRUCTURAL REQUIREMENTS

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Citation

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Chicago
De Cuyper, Carolien, Sylwia Magdalena Struk, Lukas Braem, Kris Gevaert, Geert De Jaeger, and Sofie Goormachtig. 2017. “Strigolactones, Karrikins and Beyond.” Plant Cell and Environment 40 (9): 1691–1703.
APA
De Cuyper, Carolien, Struk, S. M., Braem, L., Gevaert, K., De Jaeger, G., & Goormachtig, S. (2017). Strigolactones, karrikins and beyond. PLANT CELL AND ENVIRONMENT, 40(9), 1691–1703.
Vancouver
1.
De Cuyper C, Struk SM, Braem L, Gevaert K, De Jaeger G, Goormachtig S. Strigolactones, karrikins and beyond. PLANT CELL AND ENVIRONMENT. 2017;40(9):1691–703.
MLA
De Cuyper, Carolien, Sylwia Magdalena Struk, Lukas Braem, et al. “Strigolactones, Karrikins and Beyond.” PLANT CELL AND ENVIRONMENT 40.9 (2017): 1691–1703. Print.
@article{8525975,
  abstract     = {The plant hormones strigolactones are synthesized from carotenoids and signal via the alpha/beta hydrolase DWARF 14 (D14) and the F-box protein MORE AXILLARY GROWTH 2 (MAX2). Karrikins, molecules produced upon fire, share MAX2 for signalling, but depend on the D14 paralog KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE 2 (KAI2) for perception with strong evidence that the MAX2-KAI2 protein complex might also recognize so far unknown plant-made karrikin-like molecules. Thus, the phenotypes of the max2 mutants are the complex consequence of a loss of both D14-dependent and KAI2-dependent signalling, hence, the reason why some biological roles, attributed to strigolactones based on max2 phenotypes, could never be observed in d14 or in the strigolactone-deficient max3 and max4 mutants. Moreover, the broadly used synthetic strigolactone analog rac-GR24 has been shown to mimic strigolactone as well as karrikin(-like) signals, providing an extra level of complexity in the distinction of the unique and common roles of both molecules in plant biology. Here, a critical overview is provided of the diverse biological processes regulated by strigolactones and/or karrikins. These two growth regulators are considered beyond their boundaries, and the importance of the yet unknown karrikin-like molecules is discussed as well.},
  author       = {De Cuyper, Carolien and Struk, Sylwia Magdalena and Braem, Lukas and Gevaert, Kris and De Jaeger, Geert and Goormachtig, Sofie},
  issn         = {0140-7791},
  journal      = {PLANT CELL AND ENVIRONMENT},
  keyword      = {hormone signalling,karrikins,MAX2,strigolactones,ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI,BOX PROTEIN MAX2,ARABIDOPSIS SEED-GERMINATION,PLANT-GROWTH REGULATORS,PARASITIC WEED STRIGA,SYNTHETIC ANALOGS,LEAF SENESCENCE,ACTS DOWNSTREAM,BUD OUTGROWTH,STRUCTURAL REQUIREMENTS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {9},
  pages        = {1691--1703},
  title        = {Strigolactones, karrikins and beyond},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pce.12996},
  volume       = {40},
  year         = {2017},
}

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