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Integrated polymer polarization rotator based on tilted laser ablation

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Abstract
The ubiquitous need for compact, low-cost and mass production photonic devices, for next generation photonic enabled applications, necessitates the development of integrated components exhibiting functionalities that are, to date, carried out by free space elements or standard fiber equipment. The polarization rotator is a typical example of such tendency, as it is a crucial part of the PBS operation of future transceiver modules that leverage polarization multiplexing schemes for increasing the optical network capacity. Up to now, a variety of integrated polarization rotating concepts has been proposed and reported, relying, mainly, on special waveguide crossection configurations for achieving the rotation. Nevertheless, most of those concepts employ SiPh or III-V integration platforms, significantly increasing the fabrication complexity required for customizing the waveguide crossection, which in turn leads to either prohibitively increased cost or compromised quality and performance. In this manuscript we demonstrate the extensive design of a low-cost integrated polymer polarization rotator employing a right-trapezoidal waveguide interfaced to standard square polymer waveguides. First the crossection of the waveguide is defined by calculating and analyzing the components of the hybrid modes excited in the waveguide structure, using a Finite Difference mode solver. Mode overlaps between the fundamental polymer mode and each hybrid mode reveal the optimum lateral offset between the square polymer and the trapezoidal waveguide that ensures both minimum interface loss and maximized polarization rotation performance. The required trapezoidal waveguide length is obtained through EigenMode Expansion (EME) propagation simulations, while more than 95% maximum theoretical conversion efficiency is reported over the entire C-band, resulting to more than 13dB polarization extinction ratio. The polarization rotator design relies on the development of angled polymer waveguide sidewalls, employing the tilted laser ablation technology, currently available at CMST. Therefore, the aforementioned simulation steps adhere fully to the respective design rules, taking into account the anticipated fabrication variations
Keywords
Polarization Rotator, Polymer waveguide, Mode Hybridization, trapezoidal shape, Integrated Rotator, Laser ablation

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Chicago
Poulopoulos, Giannis, Dimitrios Kalavrouziotis, Jeroen Missinne, Erwin Bosman, Geert Van Steenberge, Dimitrios Apostolopoulos, and Hercules Avramopoulos. 2017. “Integrated Polymer Polarization Rotator Based on Tilted Laser Ablation.” In Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies Xxi, 10106:10106C–1–10106C–11. SPIE.
APA
Poulopoulos, G., Kalavrouziotis, D., Missinne, J., Bosman, E., Van Steenberge, G., Apostolopoulos, D., & Avramopoulos, H. (2017). Integrated polymer polarization rotator based on tilted laser ablation. INTEGRATED OPTICS: DEVICES, MATERIALS, AND TECHNOLOGIES XXI (Vol. 10106, pp. 10106C–1–10106C–11). Presented at the Conference on Integrated Optics - Devices, Materials, and Technologies XXI , SPIE.
Vancouver
1.
Poulopoulos G, Kalavrouziotis D, Missinne J, Bosman E, Van Steenberge G, Apostolopoulos D, et al. Integrated polymer polarization rotator based on tilted laser ablation. INTEGRATED OPTICS: DEVICES, MATERIALS, AND TECHNOLOGIES XXI. SPIE; 2017. p. 10106C–1–10106C–11.
MLA
Poulopoulos, Giannis, Dimitrios Kalavrouziotis, Jeroen Missinne, et al. “Integrated Polymer Polarization Rotator Based on Tilted Laser Ablation.” Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies Xxi. Vol. 10106. SPIE, 2017. 10106C–1–10106C–11. Print.
@inproceedings{8524626,
  abstract     = {The ubiquitous need for compact, low-cost and mass production photonic devices, for next generation photonic enabled applications, necessitates the development of integrated components exhibiting functionalities that are, to date, carried out by free space elements or standard fiber equipment. The polarization rotator is a typical example of such tendency, as it is a crucial part of the PBS operation of future transceiver modules that leverage polarization multiplexing schemes for increasing the optical network capacity. Up to now, a variety of integrated polarization rotating concepts has been proposed and reported, relying, mainly, on special waveguide crossection configurations for achieving the rotation.
Nevertheless, most of those concepts employ SiPh or III-V integration platforms, significantly increasing the fabrication
complexity required for customizing the waveguide crossection, which in turn leads to either prohibitively increased cost
or compromised quality and performance. In this manuscript we demonstrate the extensive design of a low-cost
integrated polymer polarization rotator employing a right-trapezoidal waveguide interfaced to standard square polymer
waveguides. First the crossection of the waveguide is defined by calculating and analyzing the components of the hybrid modes excited in the waveguide structure, using a Finite Difference mode solver. Mode overlaps between the
fundamental polymer mode and each hybrid mode reveal the optimum lateral offset between the square polymer and the trapezoidal waveguide that ensures both minimum interface loss and maximized polarization rotation performance. The required trapezoidal waveguide length is obtained through EigenMode Expansion (EME) propagation simulations, while more than 95\% maximum theoretical conversion efficiency is reported over the entire C-band, resulting to more than 13dB polarization extinction ratio. The polarization rotator design relies on the development of angled polymer
waveguide sidewalls, employing the tilted laser ablation technology, currently available at CMST. Therefore, the
aforementioned simulation steps adhere fully to the respective design rules, taking into account the anticipated
fabrication variations},
  articleno    = {UNSP 101060C },
  author       = {Poulopoulos, Giannis and Kalavrouziotis, Dimitrios and Missinne, Jeroen and Bosman, Erwin and Van Steenberge, Geert and Apostolopoulos, Dimitrios and Avramopoulos, Hercules},
  booktitle    = {INTEGRATED OPTICS: DEVICES, MATERIALS, AND TECHNOLOGIES XXI},
  isbn         = {978-1-5106-0653-1},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {San Francisco, United States},
  pages        = {UNSP 101060C :10106C-1--UNSP 101060C :10106C-11},
  publisher    = {SPIE},
  title        = {Integrated polymer polarization rotator based on tilted laser ablation},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2250873},
  volume       = {10106},
  year         = {2017},
}

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