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A systematic review and meta-analysis of trypanosome prevalence in tsetse flies

Reta D Abdi, Getahun E Agga, Weldegebrial G Aregawi, Merga Bekana, Thomas Van Leeuwen UGent, Vincent Delespaux and Luc Duchateau UGent (2017) BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH. 13.
abstract
Background: The optimisation of trypanosomosis control programs warrants a good knowledge of the main vector of animal and human trypanosomes in sub-Saharan Africa, the tsetse fly. An important aspect of the tsetse fly population is its trypanosome infection prevalence, as it determines the intensity of the transmission of the parasite by the vector. We therefore conducted a systematic review of published studies documenting trypanosome infection prevalence from field surveys or from laboratory experiments under controlled conditions. Publications were screened in the Web of Science, PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Using the four-stage (identification, screening, eligibility and inclusion) process in the PRISMA statement the initial screened total of 605 studies were reduced to 72 studies. The microscopic examination of dissected flies (dissection method) remains the most used method to detect trypanosomes and thus constituted the main focus of this analysis. Meta-regression was performed to identify factors responsible for high trypanosome prevalence in the vectors and a random effects meta-analysis was used to report the sensitivity of molecular and serological tests using the dissection method as gold standard. Results: The overall pooled prevalence was 10.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.1%, 12.4%) and 31.0% (95% CI = 20. 0%, 42.0%) for the field survey and laboratory experiment data respectively. The country and the year of publication were found to be significantly factors associated with the prevalence of trypanosome infection in tsetse flies. The alternative diagnostic tools applied to dissection positive samples were characterised by low sensitivity, and no information on the specificity was available at all. Conclusion: Both temporal and spatial variation in trypanosome infection prevalence of field collected tsetse flies exists, but further investigation on real risk factors is needed how this variation can be explained. Improving the sensitivity and determining the specificity of these alternative diagnostic tools should be a priority and will allow to estimate the prevalence of trypanosome infection in tsetse flies in high-throughput.
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
year
type
journalArticle (original)
publication status
published
subject
keyword
Meta-regression, Systematic review, Glossina, Trypanosome infection prevalence, Diagnostic methods, GLOSSINA-MORSITANS-MORSITANS, POLYMERASE-CHAIN-REACTION, SLEEPING SICKNESS FOCUS, INFECTION-RATES, WILD TSETSE, DNA PROBES, COTE-DIVOIRE, DOT-ELISA, NANNOMONAS CONGOLENSE, AFRICAN TRYPANOSOMES
journal title
BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH
BMC Vet. Res.
volume
13
article number
100
pages
13 pages
Web of Science type
Article
Web of Science id
000399183700001
ISSN
1746-6148
DOI
10.1186/s12917-017-1012-9
language
English
UGent publication?
yes
classification
A1
copyright statement
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0)
id
8523729
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-8523729
date created
2017-06-14 09:38:24
date last changed
2017-06-28 09:30:33
@article{8523729,
  abstract     = {Background: The optimisation of trypanosomosis control programs warrants a good knowledge of the main vector of animal and human trypanosomes in sub-Saharan Africa, the tsetse fly. An important aspect of the tsetse fly population is its trypanosome infection prevalence, as it determines the intensity of the transmission of the parasite by the vector. We therefore conducted a systematic review of published studies documenting trypanosome infection prevalence from field surveys or from laboratory experiments under controlled conditions. Publications were screened in the Web of Science, PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Using the four-stage (identification, screening, eligibility and inclusion) process in the PRISMA statement the initial screened total of 605 studies were reduced to 72 studies. The microscopic examination of dissected flies (dissection method) remains the most used method to detect trypanosomes and thus constituted the main focus of this analysis. Meta-regression was performed to identify factors responsible for high trypanosome prevalence in the vectors and a random effects meta-analysis was used to report the sensitivity of molecular and serological tests using the dissection method as gold standard. 
Results: The overall pooled prevalence was 10.3\% (95\% confidence interval [CI] = 8.1\%, 12.4\%) and 31.0\% (95\% CI = 20. 0\%, 42.0\%) for the field survey and laboratory experiment data respectively. The country and the year of publication were found to be significantly factors associated with the prevalence of trypanosome infection in tsetse flies. The alternative diagnostic tools applied to dissection positive samples were characterised by low sensitivity, and no information on the specificity was available at all. 
Conclusion: Both temporal and spatial variation in trypanosome infection prevalence of field collected tsetse flies exists, but further investigation on real risk factors is needed how this variation can be explained. Improving the sensitivity and determining the specificity of these alternative diagnostic tools should be a priority and will allow to estimate the prevalence of trypanosome infection in tsetse flies in high-throughput.},
  articleno    = {100},
  author       = {Abdi, Reta D and Agga, Getahun E and Aregawi, Weldegebrial G and Bekana, Merga and Van Leeuwen, Thomas and Delespaux, Vincent and Duchateau, Luc},
  issn         = {1746-6148},
  journal      = {BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH},
  keyword      = {Meta-regression,Systematic review,Glossina,Trypanosome infection prevalence,Diagnostic methods,GLOSSINA-MORSITANS-MORSITANS,POLYMERASE-CHAIN-REACTION,SLEEPING SICKNESS FOCUS,INFECTION-RATES,WILD TSETSE,DNA PROBES,COTE-DIVOIRE,DOT-ELISA,NANNOMONAS CONGOLENSE,AFRICAN TRYPANOSOMES},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {13},
  title        = {A systematic review and meta-analysis of trypanosome prevalence in tsetse flies},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-017-1012-9},
  volume       = {13},
  year         = {2017},
}

Chicago
Abdi, Reta D, Getahun E Agga, Weldegebrial G Aregawi, Merga Bekana, Thomas Van Leeuwen, Vincent Delespaux, and Luc Duchateau. 2017. “A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Trypanosome Prevalence in Tsetse Flies.” Bmc Veterinary Research 13.
APA
Abdi, R. D., Agga, G. E., Aregawi, W. G., Bekana, M., Van Leeuwen, T., Delespaux, V., & Duchateau, L. (2017). A systematic review and meta-analysis of trypanosome prevalence in tsetse flies. BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH, 13.
Vancouver
1.
Abdi RD, Agga GE, Aregawi WG, Bekana M, Van Leeuwen T, Delespaux V, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of trypanosome prevalence in tsetse flies. BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH. 2017;13.
MLA
Abdi, Reta D, Getahun E Agga, Weldegebrial G Aregawi, et al. “A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Trypanosome Prevalence in Tsetse Flies.” BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH 13 (2017): n. pag. Print.