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Associations between a Mediterranean diet pattern and inflammatory biomarkers in European adolescents

(2018) EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION. 57(5). p.1747-1760
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Abstract
To test whether the Mediterranean diet score and each food-subgroup is associated with inflammatory biomarkers in European adolescents. In 464 adolescents (13-17 years) of the European HELENA study, data were available on body composition, inflammation markers, and food intake determined by two computerized 24-h recalls. The Mediterranean diet score and its food-subgroups (Vegetables, Fruits and Nuts, Pulses, Cereal and Roots, Monounsaturated/Saturated fat ratio, Dairy, Fish, Meat and Alcohol) were evaluated. A set of inflammation-related biomarkers was measured: IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, TGF beta-1, TNF-alpha, sVCAM-1, sICAM1, sE-selectin, white blood cells, lymphocytes, CD3, CRP, GGT, ALT, and homocysteine. Multivariate and multiple linear regression analyses were adjusted for age, sex, country, socioeconomic status, paternal and maternal education, adiposity, and smoking habits. The Mediterranean diet score was positively associated with CRP, and negatively with sVCAM-1. The subgroups showed the following positive/negative associations: Vegetables with IL-10(+), CRP(+), CD3(+), ALT(+), lymphocytes(+), sE-selectin(-); Fruits and Nuts with IL-4(-), TNF-alpha; Pulses with IL-5(+), IL-6(+), IL-2(-); Cereals and Roots with IL-6(-), IL-10(-); Monounsaturated/Saturated-fat ratio with IL-6(+), TGF beta-1(+), sVCAM-1(+boys, -girls), homocysteine(-); Dairy with IL-1(+), IL-5(+), IL-6(+), IL-10(+), TGF beta-1(+), homocysteine(-); Fish with homocysteine(-); Meat with IL-2(+), IL-10(+); Alcohol with CRP(+), lymphocytes(-). Sex differences were found. Some specific food-inflammation associations were found, suggesting that diet is to a certain extent already related to inflammation in adolescents and can be used in disease prevention. Also some counterintuitive results were found, which might be due to grouping very different foods into a single group, besides considering that the human body may respond differently depending on the interaction between diet, lifestyle, genetics, biochemical individuality, age and sex.
Keywords
Mediterranean diet, Inflammation, Adolescents, Diet-inflammation associations, C-REACTIVE PROTEIN, LOW-GRADE INFLAMMATION, MIDDLE-AGED MEN, N-3 FATTY-ACIDS, CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE, HEALTHY-ADULTS, ENDOTHELIAL FUNCTION, METABOLIC SYNDROME, DECREASED LEVELS, GLYCEMIC INDEX

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Citation

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Chicago
Arouca, Aline, Nathalie Michels, Luis A Moreno, Esther M González-Gil, Ascensión Marcos, Sonia Gómez, Ligia Esperanza Díaz, et al. 2018. “Associations Between a Mediterranean Diet Pattern and Inflammatory Biomarkers in European Adolescents.” European Journal of Nutrition 57 (5): 1747–1760.
APA
Arouca, A., Michels, N., Moreno, L. A., González-Gil, E. M., Marcos, A., Gómez, S., Díaz, L. E., et al. (2018). Associations between a Mediterranean diet pattern and inflammatory biomarkers in European adolescents. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION, 57(5), 1747–1760.
Vancouver
1.
Arouca A, Michels N, Moreno LA, González-Gil EM, Marcos A, Gómez S, et al. Associations between a Mediterranean diet pattern and inflammatory biomarkers in European adolescents. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION. 2018;57(5):1747–60.
MLA
Arouca, Aline, Nathalie Michels, Luis A Moreno, et al. “Associations Between a Mediterranean Diet Pattern and Inflammatory Biomarkers in European Adolescents.” EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION 57.5 (2018): 1747–1760. Print.
@article{8522378,
  abstract     = {To test whether the Mediterranean diet score and each food-subgroup is associated with inflammatory biomarkers in European adolescents. 
In 464 adolescents (13-17 years) of the European HELENA study, data were available on body composition, inflammation markers, and food intake determined by two computerized 24-h recalls. The Mediterranean diet score and its food-subgroups (Vegetables, Fruits and Nuts, Pulses, Cereal and Roots, Monounsaturated/Saturated fat ratio, Dairy, Fish, Meat and Alcohol) were evaluated. A set of inflammation-related biomarkers was measured: IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, TGF beta-1, TNF-alpha, sVCAM-1, sICAM1, sE-selectin, white blood cells, lymphocytes, CD3, CRP, GGT, ALT, and homocysteine. Multivariate and multiple linear regression analyses were adjusted for age, sex, country, socioeconomic status, paternal and maternal education, adiposity, and smoking habits. 
The Mediterranean diet score was positively associated with CRP, and negatively with sVCAM-1. The subgroups showed the following positive/negative associations: Vegetables with IL-10(+), CRP(+), CD3(+), ALT(+), lymphocytes(+), sE-selectin(-); Fruits and Nuts with IL-4(-), TNF-alpha; Pulses with IL-5(+), IL-6(+), IL-2(-); Cereals and Roots with IL-6(-), IL-10(-); Monounsaturated/Saturated-fat ratio with IL-6(+), TGF beta-1(+), sVCAM-1(+boys, -girls), homocysteine(-); Dairy with IL-1(+), IL-5(+), IL-6(+), IL-10(+), TGF beta-1(+), homocysteine(-); Fish with homocysteine(-); Meat with IL-2(+), IL-10(+); Alcohol with CRP(+), lymphocytes(-). Sex differences were found. 
Some specific food-inflammation associations were found, suggesting that diet is to a certain extent already related to inflammation in adolescents and can be used in disease prevention. Also some counterintuitive results were found, which might be due to grouping very different foods into a single group, besides considering that the human body may respond differently depending on the interaction between diet, lifestyle, genetics, biochemical individuality, age and sex.},
  author       = {Arouca, Aline and Michels, Nathalie and Moreno, Luis A and Gonz{\'a}lez-Gil, Esther M and Marcos, Ascensi{\'o}n and G{\'o}mez, Sonia and D{\'i}az, Ligia Esperanza and Widhalm, Kurt and Moln{\'a}r, D{\'e}nes and Manios, Yannis and Gottrand, Frederic and Kafatos, Antonio and Kersting, Mathilde and Sj{\"o}str{\"o}m, Michael and de la O, Alejandro and Ferrari, Marika and Huybrechts, Inge and Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela and De Henauw, Stefaan},
  issn         = {1436-6207},
  journal      = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION},
  keyword      = {Mediterranean diet,Inflammation,Adolescents,Diet-inflammation associations,C-REACTIVE PROTEIN,LOW-GRADE INFLAMMATION,MIDDLE-AGED MEN,N-3 FATTY-ACIDS,CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE,HEALTHY-ADULTS,ENDOTHELIAL FUNCTION,METABOLIC SYNDROME,DECREASED LEVELS,GLYCEMIC INDEX},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {1747--1760},
  title        = {Associations between a Mediterranean diet pattern and inflammatory biomarkers in European adolescents},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-017-1457-4},
  volume       = {57},
  year         = {2018},
}

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