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Constraints on ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray sources from a search for neutrinos above 10 PeV with IceCube

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Abstract
We report constraints on the sources of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) above 10(9) GeV, based on an analysis of seven years of IceCube data. This analysis efficiently selects very high-energy neutrino-induced events which have deposited energies from 5 x 10(5) GeV to above 10(11) GeV. Two neutrino-induced events with an estimated deposited energy of (2.6 +/- 0.3) x 10(6) GeV, the highest neutrino energy observed so far, and (7.7 +/- 2.0) x 10(5) GeV were detected. The atmospheric background-only hypothesis of detecting these events is rejected at 3.6 sigma. The hypothesis that the observed events are of cosmogenic origin is also rejected at > 99% CL because of the limited deposited energy and the nonobservation of events at higher energy, while their observation is consistent with an astrophysical origin. Our limits on cosmogenic neutrino fluxes disfavor the UHECR sources having a cosmological evolution stronger than the star formation rate, e.g., active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts, assuming proton-dominated UHECRs. Constraints on UHECR sources including mixed and heavy UHECR compositions are obtained for models of neutrino production within UHECR sources. Our limit disfavors a significant part of parameter space for active galactic nuclei and new-born pulsar models. These limits on the ultrahigh-energy neutrino flux models are the most stringent to date.
Keywords
COSMOGENIC NEUTRINOS, TRACK RECONSTRUCTION, FERMI-LAT, BURSTS, SPECTRUM, MODEL, FLUX, TELESCOPES, SELECTION, EMISSION

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Chicago
Aartsen, M. G., K. Abraham, M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, et al. 2016. “Constraints on Ultrahigh-energy Cosmic-ray Sources from a Search for Neutrinos Above 10 PeV with IceCube.” Physical Review Letters 117 (24).
APA
Aartsen, M. G., Abraham, K., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., Ahrens, M., et al. (2016). Constraints on ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray sources from a search for neutrinos above 10 PeV with IceCube. PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, 117(24).
Vancouver
1.
Aartsen MG, Abraham K, Ackermann M, Adams J, Aguilar JA, Ahlers M, et al. Constraints on ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray sources from a search for neutrinos above 10 PeV with IceCube. PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS. 2016;117(24).
MLA
Aartsen, M. G., K. Abraham, M. Ackermann, et al. “Constraints on Ultrahigh-energy Cosmic-ray Sources from a Search for Neutrinos Above 10 PeV with IceCube.” PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS 117.24 (2016): n. pag. Print.
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  abstract     = {We report constraints on the sources of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) above 10(9) GeV, based on an analysis of seven years of IceCube data. This analysis efficiently selects very high-energy neutrino-induced events which have deposited energies from 5 x 10(5) GeV to above 10(11) GeV. Two neutrino-induced events with an estimated deposited energy of (2.6 +/- 0.3) x 10(6) GeV, the highest neutrino energy observed so far, and (7.7 +/- 2.0) x 10(5) GeV were detected. The atmospheric background-only hypothesis of detecting these events is rejected at 3.6 sigma. The hypothesis that the observed events are of cosmogenic origin is also rejected at {\textrangle} 99\% CL because of the limited deposited energy and the nonobservation of events at higher energy, while their observation is consistent with an astrophysical origin. Our limits on cosmogenic neutrino fluxes disfavor the UHECR sources having a cosmological evolution stronger than the star formation rate, e.g., active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts, assuming proton-dominated UHECRs. Constraints on UHECR sources including mixed and heavy UHECR compositions are obtained for models of neutrino production within UHECR sources. Our limit disfavors a significant part of parameter space for active galactic nuclei and new-born pulsar models. These limits on the ultrahigh-energy neutrino flux models are the most stringent to date.},
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  author       = {Aartsen, M.\,G. and Abraham, K. and Ackermann, M. and Adams, J. and Aguilar, J.\,A. and Ahlers, M. and Ahrens, M. and Altmann, D. and Andeen, K. and Anderson, T. and Ansseau, I. and Anton, G. and Archinger, M. and Arg{\"u}elles, C. and Auffenberg, J. and Axani, S. and Bai, X. and Barwick, S.\,W. and Baum, V. and Bay, R. and Beatty, J.\,J. and Becker Tjus, J. and Becker, K.-H. and BenZvi, S. and Berghaus, P. and Berley, D. and Bernardini, E. and Bernhard, A. and Besson, D.\,Z. and Binder, G. and Bindig, D. and Bissok, M. and Blaufuss, E. and Blot, S. and Bohm, C. and B{\"o}rner, M. and Bos, F. and Bose, D. and B{\"o}ser, S. and Botner, O. and Braun, J. and Brayeur, L. and Bretz, H.-P. and Burgman, A. and Carver, T. and Casier, M. and Cheung, E. and Chirkin, D. and Christov, A. and Clark, K. and Classen, L. and Coenders, S. and Collin, G.\,H. and Conrad, J.\,M. and Cowen, D.\,F. and Cross, R. and Day, M. and de Andr{\'e}, J.\,P.\,A.\,M. and De Clercq, C. and del Pino 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  issn         = {0031-9007},
  journal      = {PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {24},
  pages        = {9},
  title        = {Constraints on ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray sources from a search for neutrinos above 10~PeV with IceCube},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.117.241101},
  volume       = {117},
  year         = {2016},
}

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