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Fat-soluble vitamin intake from the consumption of food, fortified food and supplements : design and methods of the Belgian VITADEK study

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Abstract
Background: The adequacy of micronutrient intake is a public health concern, as both insufficient and excessive intake levels may result in adverse health effects. Data on dietary intake are needed to evaluate potential problems regarding inadequate intake at population level and to formulate effective public health and food safety recommendations. Assessing the intake of micronutrients in population subgroups such as infants, toddlers, pregnant and lactating women is challenging and requires specific approaches. This paper describes the Belgian VITADEK study, developed to assess fat-soluble vitamin intake from the consumption of food, fortified foods and supplements in four vulnerable groups namely infants, toddlers, pregnant and lactating women. Methods: Subjects were selected according to a multi-stage stratified sampling design with a selection of clusters proportionate to the population size. Recruitment occurred in collaboration with Belgian child health consultation centres and obstetric clinics. Participants were asked to complete a self-administered online food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) or to answer the questionnaire by phone if online participation was not possible. The questionnaire was tailored to the specific diet of the different target populations. In order to capture vitamin intake from the consumption of foods, fortified foods and supplements, a market study was conducted to take an inventory of the fortified foods and supplements available on the Belgian market. The food list of the FFQ was based on both this inventory and the top 90% food groups that contribute to fat-soluble vitamin intake. Since fortification differs at brand level, food groups and subgroups were split up to the level of the brand of foods. Brand pictures were used as mnemonics to facilitate the recall of the consumed food items and portion pictures were used to facilitate the reproduction of the consumed portion sizes. Finally a composition table was compiled allowing for the computation of vitamin intake from all sources providing as such more accurate estimates of fat-soluble vitamin intake. Discussion: The results will allow assessing inadequate micronutrient intake by comparison of vitamin intake with dietary reference values. The data will further allow describing the most contributing food groups as well as the contribution of fortified foods and supplements to total vitamin intake. The data will enable evaluating whether infants, toddlers, pregnant and/or lactating women are reached by the actual Belgian fortification and supplementation programmes. Finally the retrieved data will reveal the potential for voluntary fortification and the need for future fortification and supplementation programmes.
Keywords
Online food frequency questionnaire, Fat-soluble vitamins, Dietary intake, Functional foods, Infants, Toddlers, Pregnant women, Lactating women, FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRES, MICRONUTRIENTS, EUROPE

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MLA
Moyersoen, Isabelle, et al. “Fat-Soluble Vitamin Intake from the Consumption of Food, Fortified Food and Supplements : Design and Methods of the Belgian VITADEK Study.” ARCHIVES OF PUBLIC HEALTH, vol. 75, 2017, doi:DOI 10.1186/s13690-017-0199-3.
APA
Moyersoen, I., Demarest, S., De Ridder, K., Taffareau, J., Lachat, C., & Van Camp, J. (2017). Fat-soluble vitamin intake from the consumption of food, fortified food and supplements : design and methods of the Belgian VITADEK study. ARCHIVES OF PUBLIC HEALTH, 75. https://doi.org/DOI 10.1186/s13690-017-0199-3
Chicago author-date
Moyersoen, Isabelle, Stefaan Demarest, Karin De Ridder, Jean Taffareau, Carl Lachat, and John Van Camp. 2017. “Fat-Soluble Vitamin Intake from the Consumption of Food, Fortified Food and Supplements : Design and Methods of the Belgian VITADEK Study.” ARCHIVES OF PUBLIC HEALTH 75. https://doi.org/DOI 10.1186/s13690-017-0199-3.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Moyersoen, Isabelle, Stefaan Demarest, Karin De Ridder, Jean Taffareau, Carl Lachat, and John Van Camp. 2017. “Fat-Soluble Vitamin Intake from the Consumption of Food, Fortified Food and Supplements : Design and Methods of the Belgian VITADEK Study.” ARCHIVES OF PUBLIC HEALTH 75. doi:DOI 10.1186/s13690-017-0199-3.
Vancouver
1.
Moyersoen I, Demarest S, De Ridder K, Taffareau J, Lachat C, Van Camp J. Fat-soluble vitamin intake from the consumption of food, fortified food and supplements : design and methods of the Belgian VITADEK study. ARCHIVES OF PUBLIC HEALTH. 2017;75.
IEEE
[1]
I. Moyersoen, S. Demarest, K. De Ridder, J. Taffareau, C. Lachat, and J. Van Camp, “Fat-soluble vitamin intake from the consumption of food, fortified food and supplements : design and methods of the Belgian VITADEK study,” ARCHIVES OF PUBLIC HEALTH, vol. 75, 2017.
@article{8521822,
  abstract     = {{Background: The adequacy of micronutrient intake is a public health concern, as both insufficient and excessive intake levels may result in adverse health effects. Data on dietary intake are needed to evaluate potential problems regarding inadequate intake at population level and to formulate effective public health and food safety recommendations. Assessing the intake of micronutrients in population subgroups such as infants, toddlers, pregnant and lactating women is challenging and requires specific approaches. This paper describes the Belgian VITADEK study, developed to assess fat-soluble vitamin intake from the consumption of food, fortified foods and supplements in four vulnerable groups namely infants, toddlers, pregnant and lactating women. 
Methods: Subjects were selected according to a multi-stage stratified sampling design with a selection of clusters proportionate to the population size. Recruitment occurred in collaboration with Belgian child health consultation centres and obstetric clinics. Participants were asked to complete a self-administered online food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) or to answer the questionnaire by phone if online participation was not possible. The questionnaire was tailored to the specific diet of the different target populations. In order to capture vitamin intake from the consumption of foods, fortified foods and supplements, a market study was conducted to take an inventory of the fortified foods and supplements available on the Belgian market. The food list of the FFQ was based on both this inventory and the top 90% food groups that contribute to fat-soluble vitamin intake. Since fortification differs at brand level, food groups and subgroups were split up to the level of the brand of foods. Brand pictures were used as mnemonics to facilitate the recall of the consumed food items and portion pictures were used to facilitate the reproduction of the consumed portion sizes. Finally a composition table was compiled allowing for the computation of vitamin intake from all sources providing as such more accurate estimates of fat-soluble vitamin intake. 
Discussion: The results will allow assessing inadequate micronutrient intake by comparison of vitamin intake with dietary reference values. The data will further allow describing the most contributing food groups as well as the contribution of fortified foods and supplements to total vitamin intake. The data will enable evaluating whether infants, toddlers, pregnant and/or lactating women are reached by the actual Belgian fortification and supplementation programmes. Finally the retrieved data will reveal the potential for voluntary fortification and the need for future fortification and supplementation programmes.}},
  articleno    = {{31}},
  author       = {{Moyersoen, Isabelle and Demarest, Stefaan and De Ridder, Karin and Taffareau, Jean and Lachat, Carl and Van Camp, John}},
  issn         = {{0778-7367}},
  journal      = {{ARCHIVES OF PUBLIC HEALTH}},
  keywords     = {{Online food frequency questionnaire,Fat-soluble vitamins,Dietary intake,Functional foods,Infants,Toddlers,Pregnant women,Lactating women,FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRES,MICRONUTRIENTS,EUROPE}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{10}},
  title        = {{Fat-soluble vitamin intake from the consumption of food, fortified food and supplements : design and methods of the Belgian VITADEK study}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/DOI 10.1186/s13690-017-0199-3}},
  volume       = {{75}},
  year         = {{2017}},
}

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