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Effect of the surface temperature on surface morphology, deuterium retention and erosion of EUROFER steel exposed to low-energy, high-flux deuterium plasma

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Abstract
Samples of EUFROFER, a reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel, were exposed in the linear plasma device Pilot-PSI to a deuterium (D) plasma with incident ion energy of similar to 40 eV and incident D flux of 2-6 x10(23) D/m(2) s to fluences up to 10 27 D/m(2) at surface temperatures ranging from 400 K to 950 K. The main focus of the study lays on the surface morphology changes dependent on the surface temperature and the surface composition evolution, e.g., the enrichment in tungsten; but also the erosion and the D retention are studied. The created surface morphology varies strongly with surface temperature from needle-like to corral-like structures. The visible lateral length scale of the formed structures is in the range of tens of nanometres to above 1 mu m and exhibits two thermal activated regimes below and above similar to 770 K with activation energies of 0.2 eV and 1.3 eV, respectively. The lateral variation of the enrichment of heavy elements on the surface is correlated to this surface morphology at least in the high temperature regime, independent of the origin of the enrichment (intrinsic from the sample or deposited by the plasma). Also the erosion exhibits temperature dependence at least above similar to 770 K as well as a fluence dependence. The amount of deuterium retained in the top 500 nm is almost independent of the exposure temperature and is of the order of 10(18) D/m(2), which would correspond to a sub-monolayer D coverage on the surface. The retained D in the volume summing up over the complete samples exceeds the D retained close to the surface by one order of magnitude. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.
Keywords
Plasma facing material, Surface morphology, Erosion, Steel, Plasma exposure, ACTIVATION, FILMS, F82H

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MLA
Balden, M., et al. “Effect of the Surface Temperature on Surface Morphology, Deuterium Retention and Erosion of EUROFER Steel Exposed to Low-Energy, High-Flux Deuterium Plasma.” NUCLEAR MATERIALS AND ENERGY, vol. 12, 2017, pp. 289–96.
APA
Balden, M., Elgeti, S., Zibrov, M., Bystrov, K., & Morgan, T. (2017). Effect of the surface temperature on surface morphology, deuterium retention and erosion of EUROFER steel exposed to low-energy, high-flux deuterium plasma. NUCLEAR MATERIALS AND ENERGY, 12, 289–296.
Chicago author-date
Balden, M, S Elgeti, Mikhail Zibrov, K Bystrov, and TW Morgan. 2017. “Effect of the Surface Temperature on Surface Morphology, Deuterium Retention and Erosion of EUROFER Steel Exposed to Low-Energy, High-Flux Deuterium Plasma.” NUCLEAR MATERIALS AND ENERGY 12: 289–96.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Balden, M, S Elgeti, Mikhail Zibrov, K Bystrov, and TW Morgan. 2017. “Effect of the Surface Temperature on Surface Morphology, Deuterium Retention and Erosion of EUROFER Steel Exposed to Low-Energy, High-Flux Deuterium Plasma.” NUCLEAR MATERIALS AND ENERGY 12: 289–296.
Vancouver
1.
Balden M, Elgeti S, Zibrov M, Bystrov K, Morgan T. Effect of the surface temperature on surface morphology, deuterium retention and erosion of EUROFER steel exposed to low-energy, high-flux deuterium plasma. NUCLEAR MATERIALS AND ENERGY. 2017;12:289–96.
IEEE
[1]
M. Balden, S. Elgeti, M. Zibrov, K. Bystrov, and T. Morgan, “Effect of the surface temperature on surface morphology, deuterium retention and erosion of EUROFER steel exposed to low-energy, high-flux deuterium plasma,” NUCLEAR MATERIALS AND ENERGY, vol. 12, pp. 289–296, 2017.
@article{8521754,
  abstract     = {Samples of EUFROFER, a reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel, were exposed in the linear plasma device Pilot-PSI to a deuterium (D) plasma with incident ion energy of similar to 40 eV and incident D flux of 2-6 x10(23) D/m(2) s to fluences up to 10 27 D/m(2) at surface temperatures ranging from 400 K to 950 K. The main focus of the study lays on the surface morphology changes dependent on the surface temperature and the surface composition evolution, e.g., the enrichment in tungsten; but also the erosion and the D retention are studied. The created surface morphology varies strongly with surface temperature from needle-like to corral-like structures. The visible lateral length scale of the formed structures is in the range of tens of nanometres to above 1 mu m and exhibits two thermal activated regimes below and above similar to 770 K with activation energies of 0.2 eV and 1.3 eV, respectively. The lateral variation of the enrichment of heavy elements on the surface is correlated to this surface morphology at least in the high temperature regime, independent of the origin of the enrichment (intrinsic from the sample or deposited by the plasma). Also the erosion exhibits temperature dependence at least above similar to 770 K as well as a fluence dependence. The amount of deuterium retained in the top 500 nm is almost independent of the exposure temperature and is of the order of 10(18) D/m(2), which would correspond to a sub-monolayer D coverage on the surface. The retained D in the volume summing up over the complete samples exceeds the D retained close to the surface by one order of magnitude. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.},
  author       = {Balden, M and Elgeti, S and Zibrov, Mikhail and Bystrov, K and Morgan, TW},
  issn         = {2352-1791},
  journal      = {NUCLEAR MATERIALS AND ENERGY},
  keywords     = {Plasma facing material,Surface morphology,Erosion,Steel,Plasma exposure,ACTIVATION,FILMS,F82H},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {289--296},
  title        = {Effect of the surface temperature on surface morphology, deuterium retention and erosion of EUROFER steel exposed to low-energy, high-flux deuterium plasma},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nme.2017.01.001},
  volume       = {12},
  year         = {2017},
}

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