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Metabolic activity, urease production, antibiotic resistance and virulence in dual species biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus

Ilse Vandecandelaere (UGent) , Filip Van Nieuwerburgh (UGent) , Dieter Deforce (UGent) and Tom Coenye (UGent)
(2017) PLOS ONE. 12(3).
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Abstract
In this paper, the metabolic activity in single and dual species biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus isolates was investigated. Our results demonstrated that there was less metabolic activity in dual species biofilms compared to S. aureus biofilms. However, this was not observed if S. aureus and S. epidermidis were obtained from the same sample. The largest effect on metabolic activity was observed in biofilms of S. aureus Mu50 and S. epidermidis ET-024. A transcriptomic analysis of these dual species biofilms showed that urease genes and genes encoding proteins involved in metabolism were downregulated in comparison to monospecies biofilms. These results were subsequently confirmed by phenotypic assays. As metabolic activity is related to acid production, the pH in dual species biofilms was slightly higher compared to S. aureus Mu50 biofilms. Our results showed that S. epidermidis ET-024 in dual species biofilms inhibits metabolic activity of S. aureus Mu50, leading to less acid production. As a consequence, less urease activity is required to compensate for low pH. Importantly, this effect was biofilm-specific. Also S. aureus Mu50 genes encoding virulence-associated proteins (Spa, SpIF and Dps) were upregulated in dual species biofilms compared to monospecies biofilms and using Caenorhabditis elegans infection assays, we demonstrated that more nematodes survived when co-infected with S. epidermidis ET-024 and S. aureus mutants lacking functional spa, spIF or dps genes, compared to nematodes infected with S. epidermidis ET-024 and wild type S. aureus. Finally, S. epidermidis ET-024 genes encoding resistance to oxacillin, erythromycin and tobramycin were upregulated in dual species biofilms and increased resistance was subsequently confirmed. Our data indicate that both species in dual species biofilms of S. epidermidis and S. aureus influence each other's behavior, but additional studies are required necessary to elucidate the exact mechanism(s) involved.
Keywords
COAGULASE-NEGATIVE STAPHYLOCOCCI, PROTEIN-A, CAENORHABDITIS-ELEGANS, METHICILLIN RESISTANCE, DNA-BINDING, SUSCEPTIBILITY, INFECTIONS, MECHANISMS, PATHOGEN, SEQUENCE

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Chicago
Vandecandelaere, Ilse, Filip Van Nieuwerburgh, Dieter Deforce, and Tom Coenye. 2017. “Metabolic Activity, Urease Production, Antibiotic Resistance and Virulence in Dual Species Biofilms of Staphylococcus Epidermidis and Staphylococcus Aureus.” Plos One 12 (3).
APA
Vandecandelaere, Ilse, Van Nieuwerburgh, F., Deforce, D., & Coenye, T. (2017). Metabolic activity, urease production, antibiotic resistance and virulence in dual species biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. PLOS ONE, 12(3).
Vancouver
1.
Vandecandelaere I, Van Nieuwerburgh F, Deforce D, Coenye T. Metabolic activity, urease production, antibiotic resistance and virulence in dual species biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. PLOS ONE. 2017;12(3).
MLA
Vandecandelaere, Ilse, Filip Van Nieuwerburgh, Dieter Deforce, et al. “Metabolic Activity, Urease Production, Antibiotic Resistance and Virulence in Dual Species Biofilms of Staphylococcus Epidermidis and Staphylococcus Aureus.” PLOS ONE 12.3 (2017): n. pag. Print.
@article{8520742,
  abstract     = {In this paper, the metabolic activity in single and dual species biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus isolates was investigated. Our results demonstrated that there was less metabolic activity in dual species biofilms compared to S. aureus biofilms. However, this was not observed if S. aureus and S. epidermidis were obtained from the same sample. The largest effect on metabolic activity was observed in biofilms of S. aureus Mu50 and S. epidermidis ET-024. A transcriptomic analysis of these dual species biofilms showed that urease genes and genes encoding proteins involved in metabolism were downregulated in comparison to monospecies biofilms. These results were subsequently confirmed by phenotypic assays. As metabolic activity is related to acid production, the pH in dual species biofilms was slightly higher compared to S. aureus Mu50 biofilms. Our results showed that S. epidermidis ET-024 in dual species biofilms inhibits metabolic activity of S. aureus Mu50, leading to less acid production. As a consequence, less urease activity is required to compensate for low pH. Importantly, this effect was biofilm-specific. Also S. aureus Mu50 genes encoding virulence-associated proteins (Spa, SpIF and Dps) were upregulated in dual species biofilms compared to monospecies biofilms and using Caenorhabditis elegans infection assays, we demonstrated that more nematodes survived when co-infected with S. epidermidis ET-024 and S. aureus mutants lacking functional spa, spIF or dps genes, compared to nematodes infected with S. epidermidis ET-024 and wild type S. aureus. Finally, S. epidermidis ET-024 genes encoding resistance to oxacillin, erythromycin and tobramycin were upregulated in dual species biofilms and increased resistance was subsequently confirmed. Our data indicate that both species in dual species biofilms of S. epidermidis and S. aureus influence each other's behavior, but additional studies are required necessary to elucidate the exact mechanism(s) involved.},
  articleno    = {e0172700},
  author       = {Vandecandelaere, Ilse and Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip and Deforce, Dieter and Coenye, Tom},
  issn         = {1932-6203},
  journal      = {PLOS ONE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {19},
  title        = {Metabolic activity, urease production, antibiotic resistance and virulence in dual species biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0172700},
  volume       = {12},
  year         = {2017},
}

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