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Investigating liquid-metal embrittlement of T91 steel by fracture toughness tests

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Abstract
Heavy liquid metals such as lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) are chosen as the coolant to innovative Generation IV (Gen IV) reactors where ferritic/martensitic T91 steel is a candidate material for high temperature applications. It is known that LBE has a degrading effect on the mechanical properties of this steel. This degrading effect, which is known as liquid metal embrittlement (LME), has been screened by several tests such as tensile and small punch tests, and was most severe in the temperature range from 300 degrees C to 425 degrees C. To meet the design needs, mechanical properties such as fracture toughness should be addressed by corresponding tests. For this reason liquid-metal embrittlement of T91 steel was investigated by fracture toughness tests at 350 degrees C. Tests were conducted in Ar-5% H-2 and LBE under the same experimental conditions Tests in Ar-5% H2 were used as reference. The basic procedure in the ASTM E 1820 standard was followed to perform tests and the normalization data reduction (NDR) method was used for the analysis. Comparison of the tests demonstrated that the elasticeplastic fracture toughness (J(1C)) of the material was reduced by a factor in LBE and the fracture mode changed from ductile to quasi-cleavage. It was also shown that the precracking environment played an important role in observing LME of the material since it impacts the contact conditions between LBE and steel at the crack tip. It was demonstrated that when specimens were pre-cracked in air and tested in LBE, wetting of the crack surface by LBE could not be achieved. When specimens were pre-cracked in LBE though, they showed a significant reduction in fracture toughness. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords
FERRITIC-MARTENSITIC STEEL, LEAD-BISMUTH, STRUCTURAL-MATERIALS, NUCLEAR-REACTORS, CHALLENGES, CONTACT

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Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

Chicago
Ersoy, Feyzan Özgün, Serguei Gavrilov, and Kim Verbeken. 2016. “Investigating Liquid-metal Embrittlement of T91 Steel by Fracture Toughness Tests.” Journal of Nuclear Materials 472: 171–177.
APA
Ersoy, F. Ö., Gavrilov, S., & Verbeken, K. (2016). Investigating liquid-metal embrittlement of T91 steel by fracture toughness tests. JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS, 472, 171–177.
Vancouver
1.
Ersoy FÖ, Gavrilov S, Verbeken K. Investigating liquid-metal embrittlement of T91 steel by fracture toughness tests. JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Bv; 2016;472:171–7.
MLA
Ersoy, Feyzan Özgün, Serguei Gavrilov, and Kim Verbeken. “Investigating Liquid-metal Embrittlement of T91 Steel by Fracture Toughness Tests.” JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS 472 (2016): 171–177. Print.
@article{8519550,
  abstract     = {Heavy liquid metals such as lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) are chosen as the coolant to innovative Generation IV (Gen IV) reactors where ferritic/martensitic T91 steel is a candidate material for high temperature applications. It is known that LBE has a degrading effect on the mechanical properties of this steel. This degrading effect, which is known as liquid metal embrittlement (LME), has been screened by several tests such as tensile and small punch tests, and was most severe in the temperature range from 300 degrees C to 425 degrees C. To meet the design needs, mechanical properties such as fracture toughness should be addressed by corresponding tests. For this reason liquid-metal embrittlement of T91 steel was investigated by fracture toughness tests at 350 degrees C. Tests were conducted in Ar-5\% H-2 and LBE under the same experimental conditions Tests in Ar-5\% H2 were used as reference. The basic procedure in the ASTM E 1820 standard was followed to perform tests and the normalization data reduction (NDR) method was used for the analysis. Comparison of the tests demonstrated that the elasticeplastic fracture toughness (J(1C)) of the material was reduced by a factor in LBE and the fracture mode changed from ductile to quasi-cleavage. It was also shown that the precracking environment played an important role in observing LME of the material since it impacts the contact conditions between LBE and steel at the crack tip. It was demonstrated that when specimens were pre-cracked in air and tested in LBE, wetting of the crack surface by LBE could not be achieved. When specimens were pre-cracked in LBE though, they showed a significant reduction in fracture toughness. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
  author       = {Ersoy, Feyzan {\"O}zg{\"u}n and Gavrilov, Serguei and Verbeken, Kim},
  issn         = {0022-3115},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS},
  keyword      = {FERRITIC-MARTENSITIC STEEL,LEAD-BISMUTH,STRUCTURAL-MATERIALS,NUCLEAR-REACTORS,CHALLENGES,CONTACT},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {171--177},
  publisher    = {Elsevier Science Bv},
  title        = {Investigating liquid-metal embrittlement of T91 steel by fracture toughness tests},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2015.12.019},
  volume       = {472},
  year         = {2016},
}

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