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Measurements of intermediate-frequency electric and magnetic fields in households

(2017) ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH. 154. p.160-170
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Abstract
Historically, assessment of human exposure to electric and magnetic fields has focused on the extremely-low frequency (ELF) and radiofrequency (RF) ranges. However, research on the typically emitted fields in the intermediate-frequency (IF) range (300 Hz to 1 MHz) as well as potential effects of IF fields on the human body remains limited, although the range of household appliances with electrical components working in the IF range has grown significantly (e.g., induction cookers and compact fluorescent lighting). In this study, an extensive measurement survey was performed on the levels of electric and magnetic fields in the IF range typically present in residences as well as emitted by a wide range of household appliances under real-life circumstances. Using spot measurements, residential IF field levels were found to be generally low, while the use of certain appliances at close distance (20 cm) may result in a relatively high exposure. Overall, appliance emissions contained either harmonic signals, with fundamental frequencies between 6 kHz and 300 kHz, which were sometimes accompanied by regions in the IF spectrum of rather noisy, elevated field strengths, or much more capricious spectra, dominated by 50 Hz harmonics emanating far in the IF domain. The maximum peak field strengths recorded at 20 cm were 41.5 V/m and 2.7 A/m, both from induction cookers. Finally, none of the appliance emissions in the IF range exceeded the exposure summation rules recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC 62233) standard at 20 cm and beyond (maximum exposure quotients EQ(E) 1.0 and (E)Q(H) 0.13).
Keywords
ARTICLE SURVEILLANCE DEVICES, COMPACT FLUORESCENT LAMPS, AIR-TRAFFIC-CONTROL, IN-SITU EXPOSURE, ELECTROMAGNETIC-FIELDS, ELECTROSURGICAL UNITS, SYSTEMS, APPLIANCES, CHILDREN, KHZ, Electric and magnetic fields, Human exposure, Intermediate frequencies, Household appliances, Epidemiology

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

Chicago
Aerts, Sam, Carolina Calderon, Blaz Valic, Myron Maslanyj, Darren Addison, Terry Mee, Cristian Goiceanu, et al. 2017. “Measurements of Intermediate-frequency Electric and Magnetic Fields in Households.” Environmental Research 154: 160–170.
APA
Aerts, Sam, Calderon, C., Valic, B., Maslanyj, M., Addison, D., Mee, T., Goiceanu, C., et al. (2017). Measurements of intermediate-frequency electric and magnetic fields in households. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH, 154, 160–170.
Vancouver
1.
Aerts S, Calderon C, Valic B, Maslanyj M, Addison D, Mee T, et al. Measurements of intermediate-frequency electric and magnetic fields in households. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH. San diego: Academic Press Inc Elsevier Science; 2017;154:160–70.
MLA
Aerts, Sam, Carolina Calderon, Blaz Valic, et al. “Measurements of Intermediate-frequency Electric and Magnetic Fields in Households.” ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 154 (2017): 160–170. Print.
@article{8519431,
  abstract     = {Historically, assessment of human exposure to electric and magnetic fields has focused on the extremely-low frequency (ELF) and radiofrequency (RF) ranges. However, research on the typically emitted fields in the intermediate-frequency (IF) range (300 Hz to 1 MHz) as well as potential effects of IF fields on the human body remains limited, although the range of household appliances with electrical components working in the IF range has grown significantly (e.g., induction cookers and compact fluorescent lighting). In this study, an extensive measurement survey was performed on the levels of electric and magnetic fields in the IF range typically present in residences as well as emitted by a wide range of household appliances under real-life circumstances. Using spot measurements, residential IF field levels were found to be generally low, while the use of certain appliances at close distance (20 cm) may result in a relatively high exposure. Overall, appliance emissions contained either harmonic signals, with fundamental frequencies between 6 kHz and 300 kHz, which were sometimes accompanied by regions in the IF spectrum of rather noisy, elevated field strengths, or much more capricious spectra, dominated by 50 Hz harmonics emanating far in the IF domain. The maximum peak field strengths recorded at 20 cm were 41.5 V/m and 2.7 A/m, both from induction cookers. Finally, none of the appliance emissions in the IF range exceeded the exposure summation rules recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC 62233) standard at 20 cm and beyond (maximum exposure quotients EQ(E) 1.0 and (E)Q(H) 0.13).},
  author       = {Aerts, Sam and Calderon, Carolina and Valic, Blaz and Maslanyj, Myron and Addison, Darren and Mee, Terry and Goiceanu, Cristian and Verloock, Leen and Van den Bossche, Matthias and Gajsek, Peter and Vermeulen, Roel and Roosli, Martin and Cardis, Elisabeth and Martens, Luc and Joseph, Wout},
  issn         = {0013-9351},
  journal      = {ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH},
  keyword      = {ARTICLE SURVEILLANCE DEVICES,COMPACT FLUORESCENT LAMPS,AIR-TRAFFIC-CONTROL,IN-SITU EXPOSURE,ELECTROMAGNETIC-FIELDS,ELECTROSURGICAL UNITS,SYSTEMS,APPLIANCES,CHILDREN,KHZ,Electric and magnetic fields,Human exposure,Intermediate frequencies,Household appliances,Epidemiology},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {160--170},
  publisher    = {Academic Press Inc Elsevier Science},
  title        = {Measurements of intermediate-frequency electric and magnetic fields in households},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2017.01.001},
  volume       = {154},
  year         = {2017},
}

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