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Rethinking the role of alpha toxin in Clostridium perfringens-associated enteric diseases : a review on bovine necro-haemorrhagic enteritis

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Abstract
Bovine necro-haemorrhagic enteritis is an economically important disease caused by Clostridium perfringens type A strains. The disease mainly affects calves under intensive rearing conditions and is characterized by sudden death associated with small intestinal haemorrhage, necrosis and mucosal neutrophil infiltration. The common assumption that, when causing intestinal disease, C. perfringens relies upon specific, plasmid-encoded toxins, was recently challenged by the finding that alpha toxin, which is produced by all C. perfringens strains, is essential for necro-haemorrhagic enteritis. In addition to alpha toxin, other C. perfringens toxins and/or enzymes might contribute to the pathogenesis of necro-haemorrhagic enteritis. These additional virulence factors might contribute to breakdown of the protective mucus layer during initial stage of pathogenesis, after which alpha toxin, either or not in synergy with other toxins such as perfringolysin O, can act on the mucosal tissue. Furthermore, alpha toxin alone does not cause intestinal necrosis, indicating that other virulence factors might be needed to cause the extensive tissue necrosis observed in necro-haemorrhagic enteritis. This review summarizes recent research that has increased our understanding of the pathogenesis of bovine necro-haemorrhagic enteritis and provides information that is indispensable for the development of novel control strategies, including vaccines.
Keywords
COLLAGENASE MESSENGER-RNA, MEDIATED GAS-GANGRENE, INTESTINAL LOOP MODEL, PERFRINGOLYSIN O, ENDOTHELIAL-CELLS, PHOSPHOLIPASE-C, VEAL CALVES, NEONATAL CALVES, THETA-TOXIN, NECROHEMORRHAGIC ENTERITIS

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Chicago
Goossens, Evy, Bonnie Valgaeren, Bart Pardon, Freddy Haesebrouck, Richard Ducatelle, Piet Deprez, and Filip Van Immerseel. 2017. “Rethinking the Role of Alpha Toxin in Clostridium Perfringens-associated Enteric Diseases : a Review on Bovine Necro-haemorrhagic Enteritis.” Veterinary Research 48.
APA
Goossens, Evy, Valgaeren, B., Pardon, B., Haesebrouck, F., Ducatelle, R., Deprez, P., & Van Immerseel, F. (2017). Rethinking the role of alpha toxin in Clostridium perfringens-associated enteric diseases : a review on bovine necro-haemorrhagic enteritis. VETERINARY RESEARCH, 48.
Vancouver
1.
Goossens E, Valgaeren B, Pardon B, Haesebrouck F, Ducatelle R, Deprez P, et al. Rethinking the role of alpha toxin in Clostridium perfringens-associated enteric diseases : a review on bovine necro-haemorrhagic enteritis. VETERINARY RESEARCH. 2017;48.
MLA
Goossens, Evy, Bonnie Valgaeren, Bart Pardon, et al. “Rethinking the Role of Alpha Toxin in Clostridium Perfringens-associated Enteric Diseases : a Review on Bovine Necro-haemorrhagic Enteritis.” VETERINARY RESEARCH 48 (2017): n. pag. Print.
@article{8518558,
  abstract     = {Bovine necro-haemorrhagic enteritis is an economically important disease caused by Clostridium perfringens type A strains. The disease mainly affects calves under intensive rearing conditions and is characterized by sudden death associated with small intestinal haemorrhage, necrosis and mucosal neutrophil infiltration. The common assumption that, when causing intestinal disease, C. perfringens relies upon specific, plasmid-encoded toxins, was recently challenged by the finding that alpha toxin, which is produced by all C. perfringens strains, is essential for necro-haemorrhagic enteritis. In addition to alpha toxin, other C. perfringens toxins and/or enzymes might contribute to the pathogenesis of necro-haemorrhagic enteritis. These additional virulence factors might contribute to breakdown of the protective mucus layer during initial stage of pathogenesis, after which alpha toxin, either or not in synergy with other toxins such as perfringolysin O, can act on the mucosal tissue. Furthermore, alpha toxin alone does not cause intestinal necrosis, indicating that other virulence factors might be needed to cause the extensive tissue necrosis observed in necro-haemorrhagic enteritis. This review summarizes recent research that has increased our understanding of the pathogenesis of bovine necro-haemorrhagic enteritis and provides information that is indispensable for the development of novel control strategies, including vaccines.},
  articleno    = {9},
  author       = {Goossens, Evy and Valgaeren, Bonnie and Pardon, Bart and Haesebrouck, Freddy and Ducatelle, Richard and Deprez, Piet and Van Immerseel, Filip},
  issn         = {0928-4249},
  journal      = {VETERINARY RESEARCH},
  keyword      = {COLLAGENASE MESSENGER-RNA,MEDIATED GAS-GANGRENE,INTESTINAL LOOP MODEL,PERFRINGOLYSIN O,ENDOTHELIAL-CELLS,PHOSPHOLIPASE-C,VEAL CALVES,NEONATAL CALVES,THETA-TOXIN,NECROHEMORRHAGIC ENTERITIS},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {17},
  title        = {Rethinking the role of alpha toxin in Clostridium perfringens-associated enteric diseases : a review on bovine necro-haemorrhagic enteritis},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13567-017-0413-x},
  volume       = {48},
  year         = {2017},
}

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