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Silencing CHALCONE SYNTHASE in maize impedes the incorporation of tricin into lignin and increases lignin content

(2017) PLANT PHYSIOLOGY. 173(2). p.998-1016
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Biotechnology for a sustainable economy (Bio-Economy)
Abstract
Lignin is a phenolic heteropolymer that is deposited in secondary-thickened cell walls, where it provides mechanical strength. A recent structural characterization of cell walls from monocot species showed that the flavone tricin is part of the native lignin polymer, where it is hypothesized to initiate lignin chains. In this study, we investigated the consequences of altered tricin levels on lignin structure and cell wall recalcitrance by phenolic profiling, nuclear magnetic resonance, and saccharification assays of the naturally silenced maize (Zea mays) C2-Idf (inhibitor diffuse) mutant, defective in the CHALCONE SYNTHASE Colorless2 (C2) gene. We show that the C2-Idf mutant produces highly reduced levels of apigenin-and tricin-related flavonoids, resulting in a strongly reduced incorporation of tricin into the lignin polymer. Moreover, the lignin was enriched in beta-beta and beta-5 units, lending support to the contention that tricin acts to initiate lignin chains and that, in the absence of tricin, more monolignol dimerization reactions occur. In addition, the C2-Idf mutation resulted in strikingly higher Klason lignin levels in the leaves. As a consequence, the leaves of C2-Idf mutants had significantly reduced saccharification efficiencies compared with those of control plants. These findings are instructive for lignin engineering strategies to improve biomass processing and biochemical production.
Keywords
CELL-WALL COMPOSITION, ZEA-MAYS L, CAFFEOYL SHIKIMATE ESTERASE, PHENYLALANINE-AMMONIA-LYASE, FERMENTABLE SUGAR YIELDS, ACID O-METHYLTRANSFERASE, PANICUM-VIRGATUM L., COBRA-LIKE PROTEIN, ARABIDOPSIS-THALIANA, DOWN-REGULATION

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Citation

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Chicago
Eloy, Nubia Barbosa, Wannes Voorend, Wu Lan, Marina de Lyra Soriano Saleme, Igor Cesarino, Ruben Vanholme, Rebecca Smith, et al. 2017. “Silencing CHALCONE SYNTHASE in Maize Impedes the Incorporation of Tricin into Lignin and Increases Lignin Content.” Plant Physiology 173 (2): 998–1016.
APA
Eloy, N. B., Voorend, W., Lan, W., de Lyra Soriano Saleme, M., Cesarino, I., Vanholme, R., Smith, R., et al. (2017). Silencing CHALCONE SYNTHASE in maize impedes the incorporation of tricin into lignin and increases lignin content. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, 173(2), 998–1016.
Vancouver
1.
Eloy NB, Voorend W, Lan W, de Lyra Soriano Saleme M, Cesarino I, Vanholme R, et al. Silencing CHALCONE SYNTHASE in maize impedes the incorporation of tricin into lignin and increases lignin content. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY. 2017;173(2):998–1016.
MLA
Eloy, Nubia Barbosa, Wannes Voorend, Wu Lan, et al. “Silencing CHALCONE SYNTHASE in Maize Impedes the Incorporation of Tricin into Lignin and Increases Lignin Content.” PLANT PHYSIOLOGY 173.2 (2017): 998–1016. Print.
@article{8518199,
  abstract     = {Lignin is a phenolic heteropolymer that is deposited in secondary-thickened cell walls, where it provides mechanical strength. A recent structural characterization of cell walls from monocot species showed that the flavone tricin is part of the native lignin polymer, where it is hypothesized to initiate lignin chains. In this study, we investigated the consequences of altered tricin levels on lignin structure and cell wall recalcitrance by phenolic profiling, nuclear magnetic resonance, and saccharification assays of the naturally silenced maize (Zea mays) C2-Idf (inhibitor diffuse) mutant, defective in the CHALCONE SYNTHASE Colorless2 (C2) gene. We show that the C2-Idf mutant produces highly reduced levels of apigenin-and tricin-related flavonoids, resulting in a strongly reduced incorporation of tricin into the lignin polymer. Moreover, the lignin was enriched in beta-beta and beta-5 units, lending support to the contention that tricin acts to initiate lignin chains and that, in the absence of tricin, more monolignol dimerization reactions occur. In addition, the C2-Idf mutation resulted in strikingly higher Klason lignin levels in the leaves. As a consequence, the leaves of C2-Idf mutants had significantly reduced saccharification efficiencies compared with those of control plants. These findings are instructive for lignin engineering strategies to improve biomass processing and biochemical production.},
  author       = {Eloy, Nubia Barbosa and Voorend, Wannes and Lan, Wu and de Lyra Soriano Saleme, Marina and Cesarino, Igor and Vanholme, Ruben and Smith, Rebecca and Goeminne, Geert and Pallidis, Andreas and Morreel, Kris and Nicomedes, Jos{\'e} Junior and Ralph, John and Boerjan, Wout},
  issn         = {0032-0889},
  journal      = {PLANT PHYSIOLOGY},
  keyword      = {CELL-WALL COMPOSITION,ZEA-MAYS L,CAFFEOYL SHIKIMATE ESTERASE,PHENYLALANINE-AMMONIA-LYASE,FERMENTABLE SUGAR YIELDS,ACID O-METHYLTRANSFERASE,PANICUM-VIRGATUM L.,COBRA-LIKE PROTEIN,ARABIDOPSIS-THALIANA,DOWN-REGULATION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {998--1016},
  title        = {Silencing CHALCONE SYNTHASE in maize impedes the incorporation of tricin into lignin and increases lignin content},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.16.01108},
  volume       = {173},
  year         = {2017},
}

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