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The personal viewpoint on the meaning of tranquility affects the appraisal of the urban park soundscape

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Abstract
Previous research has shown that tranquil areas in the city, such as urban parks, are usually perceived as positive and have a restorative effect on visitors. However, visitors could experience these spaces differently depending on the meaning they assign to the concept of tranquility. To investigate how individuals' personal views on tranquility affect their perception of the sonic environment, a soundscape study was conducted in several city parks in Antwerp, Belgium. Mobile sound measurements were combined with a questionnaire survey amongst 660 park visitors. Within the survey, the participants' viewpoint on tranquility was evaluated using their agreement with a set of previously established prototypical statements, categorizing them into one out of three main tranquility viewpoint groups: people that associate tranquility with silence, those that associate it with hearing natural sounds, or those that associate it with social relationships. Next to this, the sounds that participants had heard during their visit were noted, and their perception of the overall quality of the soundscape and the degree to which it matched their expectation were assessed. Results show that the park visitors who associate tranquility with natural sounds or to silence are more often found amongst those that report hearing mechanical sounds a lot. The same groups of visitors rate the overall quality of the sonic environment of the park more often bad to very bad. These findings suggest that park visitors pay attention more to the sounds they do not expect to hear, and that the higher their expectations about the soundscape, the more critical they become in their appraisal of the soundscape.
Keywords
QUIET AREAS, PERCEPTION, SOUNDWALKS, QUALITY, MODEL, soundscape, tranquil areas, urban parks, personal viewpoint

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MLA
Filipan, Karlo et al. “The Personal Viewpoint on the Meaning of Tranquility Affects the Appraisal of the Urban Park Soundscape.” APPLIED SCIENCES-BASEL 7.1 (2017): n. pag. Print.
APA
Filipan, K., Boes, M., De Coensel, B., Lavandier, C., Delaitre, P., Domitrovic, H., & Botteldooren, D. (2017). The personal viewpoint on the meaning of tranquility affects the appraisal of the urban park soundscape. APPLIED SCIENCES-BASEL, 7(1).
Chicago author-date
Filipan, Karlo, Michiel Boes, Bert De Coensel, Catherine Lavandier, Pauline Delaitre, Hrvoje Domitrovic, and Dick Botteldooren. 2017. “The Personal Viewpoint on the Meaning of Tranquility Affects the Appraisal of the Urban Park Soundscape.” Applied Sciences-basel 7 (1).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Filipan, Karlo, Michiel Boes, Bert De Coensel, Catherine Lavandier, Pauline Delaitre, Hrvoje Domitrovic, and Dick Botteldooren. 2017. “The Personal Viewpoint on the Meaning of Tranquility Affects the Appraisal of the Urban Park Soundscape.” Applied Sciences-basel 7 (1).
Vancouver
1.
Filipan K, Boes M, De Coensel B, Lavandier C, Delaitre P, Domitrovic H, et al. The personal viewpoint on the meaning of tranquility affects the appraisal of the urban park soundscape. APPLIED SCIENCES-BASEL. Basel: Mdpi Ag; 2017;7(1).
IEEE
[1]
K. Filipan et al., “The personal viewpoint on the meaning of tranquility affects the appraisal of the urban park soundscape,” APPLIED SCIENCES-BASEL, vol. 7, no. 1, 2017.
@article{8518150,
  abstract     = {Previous research has shown that tranquil areas in the city, such as urban parks, are usually perceived as positive and have a restorative effect on visitors. However, visitors could experience these spaces differently depending on the meaning they assign to the concept of tranquility. To investigate how individuals' personal views on tranquility affect their perception of the sonic environment, a soundscape study was conducted in several city parks in Antwerp, Belgium. Mobile sound measurements were combined with a questionnaire survey amongst 660 park visitors. Within the survey, the participants' viewpoint on tranquility was evaluated using their agreement with a set of previously established prototypical statements, categorizing them into one out of three main tranquility viewpoint groups: people that associate tranquility with silence, those that associate it with hearing natural sounds, or those that associate it with social relationships. Next to this, the sounds that participants had heard during their visit were noted, and their perception of the overall quality of the soundscape and the degree to which it matched their expectation were assessed. Results show that the park visitors who associate tranquility with natural sounds or to silence are more often found amongst those that report hearing mechanical sounds a lot. The same groups of visitors rate the overall quality of the sonic environment of the park more often bad to very bad. These findings suggest that park visitors pay attention more to the sounds they do not expect to hear, and that the higher their expectations about the soundscape, the more critical they become in their appraisal of the soundscape.},
  articleno    = {91},
  author       = {Filipan, Karlo and Boes, Michiel and De Coensel, Bert and Lavandier, Catherine and Delaitre, Pauline and Domitrovic, Hrvoje and Botteldooren, Dick},
  issn         = {2076-3417},
  journal      = {APPLIED SCIENCES-BASEL},
  keywords     = {QUIET AREAS,PERCEPTION,SOUNDWALKS,QUALITY,MODEL,soundscape,tranquil areas,urban parks,personal viewpoint},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {16},
  publisher    = {Mdpi Ag},
  title        = {The personal viewpoint on the meaning of tranquility affects the appraisal of the urban park soundscape},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/app7010091},
  volume       = {7},
  year         = {2017},
}

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