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Adding a reward increases the reinforcing value of fruit

(2017) BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION. 117(4). p.611-620
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Abstract
Adolescents' snack choices could be altered by increasing the reinforcing value (RV) of healthy snacks compared with unhealthy snacks. This study assessed whether the RV of fruit increased by linking it to a reward and if this increased RV was comparable with the RV of unhealthy snacks alone. Moderation effects of sex, hunger, BMI z-scores and sensitivity to reward were also explored. The RV of snacks was assessed in a sample of 165 adolescents (15.1 (SD 1.5) years, 39.4% boys and 17.4% overweight) using a computerised food reinforcement task. Adolescents obtained points for snacks through mouse clicks (responses) following progressive ratio schedules of increasing response requirements. Participants were (computer) randomised to three experimental groups (1: 1: 1): fruit (n 53), fruit + reward (n 60) or unhealthy snacks (n 69). The RV was evaluated as total number of responses and breakpoint (schedule of terminating food reinforcement task). Multilevel regression analyses (total number of responses) and Cox's proportional hazard regression models (breakpoint) were used. The total number of responses made were not different between fruit + reward and fruit (b -473; 95% CI -1152, 205, P=0.17) or unhealthy snacks (b 410; 95% CI -222, 1043, P = 0.20). The breakpoint was slightly higher for fruit than fruit + reward (HR 1.34; 95% CI 1.00, 1.79, P=0.050), whereas no difference between unhealthy snacks and fruit + reward (HR 0.86; 95% CI 0.62, 1.18, P=0.34) was observed. No indication of moderation was found. Offering rewards slightly increases the RV of fruit and may be a promising strategy to increase healthy food choices. Future studies should however, explore if other rewards, could reach larger effect sizes.
Keywords
Reinforcing value, Fruits, Snacks, Rewards, Adolescents, DENSE SNACK FOODS, BEHAVIORAL-INHIBITION, VEGETABLE CONSUMPTION, ENERGY-INTAKE, VIDEO GAMES, CHILDREN, SENSITIVITY, ADOLESCENTS, OBESITY, OVERWEIGHT

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Chicago
De Cock, Nathalie, Leentje Vervoort, Patrick Kolsteren, Lieven Huybregts, Wendy Van Lippevelde, Jolien Vangeel, Melissa Notebaert, et al. 2017. “Adding a Reward Increases the Reinforcing Value of Fruit.” British Journal of Nutrition 117 (4): 611–620.
APA
De Cock, N., Vervoort, L., Kolsteren, P., Huybregts, L., Van Lippevelde, W., Vangeel, J., Notebaert, M., et al. (2017). Adding a reward increases the reinforcing value of fruit. BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION, 117(4), 611–620.
Vancouver
1.
De Cock N, Vervoort L, Kolsteren P, Huybregts L, Van Lippevelde W, Vangeel J, et al. Adding a reward increases the reinforcing value of fruit. BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION. 2017;117(4):611–20.
MLA
De Cock, Nathalie, Leentje Vervoort, Patrick Kolsteren, et al. “Adding a Reward Increases the Reinforcing Value of Fruit.” BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION 117.4 (2017): 611–620. Print.
@article{8518002,
  abstract     = {Adolescents' snack choices could be altered by increasing the reinforcing value (RV) of healthy snacks compared with unhealthy snacks. This study assessed whether the RV of fruit increased by linking it to a reward and if this increased RV was comparable with the RV of unhealthy snacks alone. Moderation effects of sex, hunger, BMI z-scores and sensitivity to reward were also explored. The RV of snacks was assessed in a sample of 165 adolescents (15.1 (SD 1.5) years, 39.4\% boys and 17.4\% overweight) using a computerised food reinforcement task. Adolescents obtained points for snacks through mouse clicks (responses) following progressive ratio schedules of increasing response requirements. Participants were (computer) randomised to three experimental groups (1: 1: 1): fruit (n 53), fruit + reward (n 60) or unhealthy snacks (n 69). The RV was evaluated as total number of responses and breakpoint (schedule of terminating food reinforcement task). Multilevel regression analyses (total number of responses) and Cox's proportional hazard regression models (breakpoint) were used. The total number of responses made were not different between fruit + reward and fruit (b -473; 95\% CI -1152, 205, P=0.17) or unhealthy snacks (b 410; 95\% CI -222, 1043, P = 0.20). The breakpoint was slightly higher for fruit than fruit + reward (HR 1.34; 95\% CI 1.00, 1.79, P=0.050), whereas no difference between unhealthy snacks and fruit + reward (HR 0.86; 95\% CI 0.62, 1.18, P=0.34) was observed. No indication of moderation was found. Offering rewards slightly increases the RV of fruit and may be a promising strategy to increase healthy food choices. Future studies should however, explore if other rewards, could reach larger effect sizes.},
  author       = {De Cock, Nathalie and Vervoort, Leentje and Kolsteren, Patrick and Huybregts, Lieven and Van Lippevelde, Wendy and Vangeel, Jolien and Notebaert, Melissa and Beullens, Kathleen and Goossens, Lien and Maes, Lea and Deforche, Benedicte and Braet, Caroline and Eggermont, Steven and Van Camp, John and Lachat, Carl},
  issn         = {0007-1145},
  journal      = {BRITISH JOURNAL OF NUTRITION},
  keyword      = {Reinforcing value,Fruits,Snacks,Rewards,Adolescents,DENSE SNACK FOODS,BEHAVIORAL-INHIBITION,VEGETABLE CONSUMPTION,ENERGY-INTAKE,VIDEO GAMES,CHILDREN,SENSITIVITY,ADOLESCENTS,OBESITY,OVERWEIGHT},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {611--620},
  title        = {Adding a reward increases the reinforcing value of fruit},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0007114517000381},
  volume       = {117},
  year         = {2017},
}

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