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Does virulence assessment of Vibrio anguillarum using sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae correspond with genotypic and phenotypic characterization?

(2013) PLOS ONE. 8(8).
Author
Organization
Abstract
Background: Vibriosis is one of the most ubiquitous fish diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Vibrio such as Vibrio (Listonella) anguillarum. Despite a lot of research efforts, the virulence factors and mechanism of V. anguillarum are still insufficiently known, in part because of the lack of standardized virulence assays. Methodology/Principal Findings: We investigated and compared the virulence of 15 V. anguillarum strains obtained from different hosts or non-host niches using a standardized gnotobiotic bioassay with European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) larvae as model hosts. In addition, to assess potential relationships between virulence and genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, the strains were characterized by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) analyses, as well as by phenotypic analyses using Biolog's Phenotype MicroArray (TM) technology and some virulence factor assays. Conclusions/Significance: Virulence testing revealed ten virulent and five avirulent strains. While some relation could be established between serotype, genotype and phenotype, no relation was found between virulence and genotypic or phenotypic characteristics, illustrating the complexity of V. anguillarum virulence. Moreover, the standardized gnotobiotic system used in this study has proven its strength as a model to assess and compare the virulence of different V. anguillarum strains in vivo. In this way, the bioassay contributes to the study of mechanisms underlying virulence in V. anguillarum.
Keywords
AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA, MEDIATED IRON UPTAKE, L-ALANINE AMIDASE, FISH, PATHOGEN, GENE-CLUSTER, AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS, HEMOLYSIN GENE, RAINBOW-TROUT, AMIB GENE, PLASMID

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MLA
Frans, Ingeborg et al. “Does Virulence Assessment of Vibrio Anguillarum Using Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus Labrax) Larvae Correspond with Genotypic and Phenotypic Characterization?” PLOS ONE 8.8 (2013): n. pag. Print.
APA
Frans, I., Dierckens, K., Crauwels, S., Van Assche, A., Leisner, J., Larsen, M. H., Michiels, C. W., et al. (2013). Does virulence assessment of Vibrio anguillarum using sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae correspond with genotypic and phenotypic characterization? PLOS ONE, 8(8).
Chicago author-date
Frans, Ingeborg, Kristof Dierckens, Sam Crauwels, Ado Van Assche, Jorgen Leisner, Marianne H Larsen, Chris W Michiels, et al. 2013. “Does Virulence Assessment of Vibrio Anguillarum Using Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus Labrax) Larvae Correspond with Genotypic and Phenotypic Characterization?” Plos One 8 (8).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Frans, Ingeborg, Kristof Dierckens, Sam Crauwels, Ado Van Assche, Jorgen Leisner, Marianne H Larsen, Chris W Michiels, Kris A Willems, Bart Lievens, Peter Bossier, and Hans Rediers. 2013. “Does Virulence Assessment of Vibrio Anguillarum Using Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus Labrax) Larvae Correspond with Genotypic and Phenotypic Characterization?” Plos One 8 (8).
Vancouver
1.
Frans I, Dierckens K, Crauwels S, Van Assche A, Leisner J, Larsen MH, et al. Does virulence assessment of Vibrio anguillarum using sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae correspond with genotypic and phenotypic characterization? PLOS ONE. 2013;8(8).
IEEE
[1]
I. Frans et al., “Does virulence assessment of Vibrio anguillarum using sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae correspond with genotypic and phenotypic characterization?,” PLOS ONE, vol. 8, no. 8, 2013.
@article{8517679,
  abstract     = {Background: Vibriosis is one of the most ubiquitous fish diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Vibrio such as Vibrio (Listonella) anguillarum. Despite a lot of research efforts, the virulence factors and mechanism of V. anguillarum are still insufficiently known, in part because of the lack of standardized virulence assays. 
Methodology/Principal Findings: We investigated and compared the virulence of 15 V. anguillarum strains obtained from different hosts or non-host niches using a standardized gnotobiotic bioassay with European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) larvae as model hosts. In addition, to assess potential relationships between virulence and genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, the strains were characterized by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) analyses, as well as by phenotypic analyses using Biolog's Phenotype MicroArray (TM) technology and some virulence factor assays. 
Conclusions/Significance: Virulence testing revealed ten virulent and five avirulent strains. While some relation could be established between serotype, genotype and phenotype, no relation was found between virulence and genotypic or phenotypic characteristics, illustrating the complexity of V. anguillarum virulence. Moreover, the standardized gnotobiotic system used in this study has proven its strength as a model to assess and compare the virulence of different V. anguillarum strains in vivo. In this way, the bioassay contributes to the study of mechanisms underlying virulence in V. anguillarum.},
  articleno    = {e70477},
  author       = {Frans, Ingeborg and Dierckens, Kristof and Crauwels, Sam and Van Assche, Ado and Leisner, Jorgen and Larsen, Marianne H and Michiels, Chris W and Willems, Kris A and Lievens, Bart and Bossier, Peter and Rediers, Hans},
  issn         = {1932-6203},
  journal      = {PLOS ONE},
  keywords     = {AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA,MEDIATED IRON UPTAKE,L-ALANINE AMIDASE,FISH,PATHOGEN,GENE-CLUSTER,AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS,HEMOLYSIN GENE,RAINBOW-TROUT,AMIB GENE,PLASMID},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {8},
  pages        = {9},
  title        = {Does virulence assessment of Vibrio anguillarum using sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae correspond with genotypic and phenotypic characterization?},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070477},
  volume       = {8},
  year         = {2013},
}

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