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cis-Cinnamic acid is a novel, natural auxin efflux inhibitor that promotes lateral root formation

Ward Steenackers (UGent) , Petr Klíma, Mussa Quareshy, Igor Cesarino (UGent) , Robert Kumpf (UGent) , Sander Corneillie (UGent) , Pedro Araujo, Tom Viaene (UGent) , Geert Goeminne (UGent) , Moritz Nowack (UGent) , et al.
(2017) PLANT PHYSIOLOGY. 173(1). p.552-565
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Abstract
Auxin steers numerous physiological processes in plants, making the tight control of its endogenous levels and spatiotemporal distribution a necessity. This regulation is achieved by different mechanisms, including auxin biosynthesis, metabolic conversions, degradation, and transport. Here, we introduce cis-cinnamic acid (c-CA) as a novel and unique addition to a small group of endogenous molecules affecting in planta auxin concentrations. c-CA is the photo-isomerization product of the phenylpropanoid pathway intermediate trans-CA (t-CA). When grown on c-CA-containing medium, an evolutionary diverse set of plant species were shown to exhibit phenotypes characteristic for high auxin levels, including inhibition of primary root growth, induction of root hairs, and promotion of adventitious and lateral rooting. By molecular docking and receptor binding assays, we showed that c-CA itself is neither an auxin nor an anti-auxin, and auxin profiling data revealed that c-CA does not significantly interfere with auxin biosynthesis. Single cell-based auxin accumulation assays showed that c-CA, and not t-CA, is a potent inhibitor of auxin efflux. Auxin signaling reporters detected changes in spatiotemporal distribution of the auxin response along the root of c-CA-treated plants, and long-distance auxin transport assays showed no inhibition of rootward auxin transport. Overall, these results suggest that the phenotypes of c-CA-treated plants are the consequence of a local change in auxin accumulation, induced by the inhibition of auxin efflux. This work reveals a novel mechanism how plants may regulate auxin levels and adds a novel, naturally occurring molecule to the chemical toolbox for the studies of auxin homeostasis.
Keywords
ARABIDOPSIS-THALIANA, PLANT DEVELOPMENT, CELL-SEPARATION, TRANSPORT, GENE, BIOSYNTHESIS, ACCUMULATION, EXPRESSION, GRADIENTS, RESPONSES

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MLA
Steenackers, Ward, et al. “Cis-Cinnamic Acid Is a Novel, Natural Auxin Efflux Inhibitor That Promotes Lateral Root Formation.” PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, vol. 173, no. 1, 2017, pp. 552–65, doi:10.1104/pp.16.00943.
APA
Steenackers, W., Klíma, P., Quareshy, M., Cesarino, I., Kumpf, R., Corneillie, S., … Vanholme, B. (2017). cis-Cinnamic acid is a novel, natural auxin efflux inhibitor that promotes lateral root formation. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, 173(1), 552–565. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.16.00943
Chicago author-date
Steenackers, Ward, Petr Klíma, Mussa Quareshy, Igor Cesarino, Robert Kumpf, Sander Corneillie, Pedro Araujo, et al. 2017. “Cis-Cinnamic Acid Is a Novel, Natural Auxin Efflux Inhibitor That Promotes Lateral Root Formation.” PLANT PHYSIOLOGY 173 (1): 552–65. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.16.00943.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Steenackers, Ward, Petr Klíma, Mussa Quareshy, Igor Cesarino, Robert Kumpf, Sander Corneillie, Pedro Araujo, Tom Viaene, Geert Goeminne, Moritz Nowack, Karin Ljung, Jiří Friml, Joshua J Blakeslee, Ondrej Novák, Eva Zažímalová, Richard Napier, Wout Boerjan, and Bartel Vanholme. 2017. “Cis-Cinnamic Acid Is a Novel, Natural Auxin Efflux Inhibitor That Promotes Lateral Root Formation.” PLANT PHYSIOLOGY 173 (1): 552–565. doi:10.1104/pp.16.00943.
Vancouver
1.
Steenackers W, Klíma P, Quareshy M, Cesarino I, Kumpf R, Corneillie S, et al. cis-Cinnamic acid is a novel, natural auxin efflux inhibitor that promotes lateral root formation. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY. 2017;173(1):552–65.
IEEE
[1]
W. Steenackers et al., “cis-Cinnamic acid is a novel, natural auxin efflux inhibitor that promotes lateral root formation,” PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, vol. 173, no. 1, pp. 552–565, 2017.
@article{8516886,
  abstract     = {Auxin steers numerous physiological processes in plants, making the tight control of its endogenous levels and spatiotemporal distribution a necessity. This regulation is achieved by different mechanisms, including auxin biosynthesis, metabolic conversions, degradation, and transport. Here, we introduce cis-cinnamic acid (c-CA) as a novel and unique addition to a small group of endogenous molecules affecting in planta auxin concentrations. c-CA is the photo-isomerization product of the phenylpropanoid pathway intermediate trans-CA (t-CA). When grown on c-CA-containing medium, an evolutionary diverse set of plant species were shown to exhibit phenotypes characteristic for high auxin levels, including inhibition of primary root growth, induction of root hairs, and promotion of adventitious and lateral rooting. By molecular docking and receptor binding assays, we showed that c-CA itself is neither an auxin nor an anti-auxin, and auxin profiling data revealed that c-CA does not significantly interfere with auxin biosynthesis. Single cell-based auxin accumulation assays showed that c-CA, and not t-CA, is a potent inhibitor of auxin efflux. Auxin signaling reporters detected changes in spatiotemporal distribution of the auxin response along the root of c-CA-treated plants, and long-distance auxin transport assays showed no inhibition of rootward auxin transport. Overall, these results suggest that the phenotypes of c-CA-treated plants are the consequence of a local change in auxin accumulation, induced by the inhibition of auxin efflux. This work reveals a novel mechanism how plants may regulate auxin levels and adds a novel, naturally occurring molecule to the chemical toolbox for the studies of auxin homeostasis.},
  author       = {Steenackers, Ward and Klíma, Petr and Quareshy, Mussa and Cesarino, Igor and Kumpf, Robert and Corneillie, Sander and Araujo, Pedro and Viaene, Tom and Goeminne, Geert and Nowack, Moritz and Ljung, Karin and Friml, Jiří and Blakeslee, Joshua J and Novák, Ondrej and Zažímalová, Eva and Napier, Richard and Boerjan, Wout and Vanholme, Bartel},
  issn         = {0032-0889},
  journal      = {PLANT PHYSIOLOGY},
  keywords     = {ARABIDOPSIS-THALIANA,PLANT DEVELOPMENT,CELL-SEPARATION,TRANSPORT,GENE,BIOSYNTHESIS,ACCUMULATION,EXPRESSION,GRADIENTS,RESPONSES},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {552--565},
  title        = {cis-Cinnamic acid is a novel, natural auxin efflux inhibitor that promotes lateral root formation},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.16.00943},
  volume       = {173},
  year         = {2017},
}

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