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Contemporary outbreaks of different avipoxviruses in Humboldt penguins of wild animal park Planckendael and in chickens of commercial poultry farms in Belgium

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Abstract
In the present study, the first outbreak of a penguinpox virus (PPV) in Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldd) and four outbreaks of fowlpox virus (FPV) in layer chickens are reported. Clinically, cutaneous wart-like growths were observed around the eyes in four juvenile Humboldt penguins and cutaneous nodular lesions in the comb, wattles, around the eyes and other unfeathered skin parts of layer chickens. Histopathology (FPV and PPV), electron microscopy (PPV), virus isolation (FPV) and PCR amplification (FPV and PPV) confirmed that both isolates were avipoxviruses (APVs). According to the phylogenetic analysis of the partial P4b core protein gene, the Belgian Humboldt PPV clustered with sequences of free-range (domestic and synanthrope bird species) and wild bird species of the United States and Europe (99-100% homology), and all four Belgian FPV isolates clustered with FPV isolates of chickens, turkeys, canary and FPV attenuated live vaccines from all over the world (100% homology).
Keywords
FOWL POXVIRUS, SPHENISCUS-MAGELLANICUS, PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS, REEMERGING FOWLPOX, AVIAN POX, VIRUS, STRAINS, VACCINE, INFECTION, GENOME

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Chicago
Avalakuppa Papi Reddy, Vishwanatha Reddy, Francis Vercammen, Ivan Trus, and Hans Nauwynck. 2017. “Contemporary Outbreaks of Different Avipoxviruses in Humboldt Penguins of Wild Animal Park Planckendael and in Chickens of Commercial Poultry Farms in Belgium.” Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 86 (1): 40–46.
APA
Avalakuppa Papi Reddy, V. R., Vercammen, F., Trus, I., & Nauwynck, H. (2017). Contemporary outbreaks of different avipoxviruses in Humboldt penguins of wild animal park Planckendael and in chickens of commercial poultry farms in Belgium. VLAAMS DIERGENEESKUNDIG TIJDSCHRIFT, 86(1), 40–46.
Vancouver
1.
Avalakuppa Papi Reddy VR, Vercammen F, Trus I, Nauwynck H. Contemporary outbreaks of different avipoxviruses in Humboldt penguins of wild animal park Planckendael and in chickens of commercial poultry farms in Belgium. VLAAMS DIERGENEESKUNDIG TIJDSCHRIFT. 2017;86(1):40–6.
MLA
Avalakuppa Papi Reddy, Vishwanatha Reddy, Francis Vercammen, Ivan Trus, et al. “Contemporary Outbreaks of Different Avipoxviruses in Humboldt Penguins of Wild Animal Park Planckendael and in Chickens of Commercial Poultry Farms in Belgium.” VLAAMS DIERGENEESKUNDIG TIJDSCHRIFT 86.1 (2017): 40–46. Print.
@article{8516664,
  abstract     = {In the present study, the first outbreak of a penguinpox virus (PPV) in Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldd) and four outbreaks of fowlpox virus (FPV) in layer chickens are reported. Clinically, cutaneous wart-like growths were observed around the eyes in four juvenile Humboldt penguins and cutaneous nodular lesions in the comb, wattles, around the eyes and other unfeathered skin parts of layer chickens. Histopathology (FPV and PPV), electron microscopy (PPV), virus isolation (FPV) and PCR amplification (FPV and PPV) confirmed that both isolates were avipoxviruses (APVs). According to the phylogenetic analysis of the partial P4b core protein gene, the Belgian Humboldt PPV clustered with sequences of free-range (domestic and synanthrope bird species) and wild bird species of the United States and Europe (99-100\% homology), and all four Belgian FPV isolates clustered with FPV isolates of chickens, turkeys, canary and FPV attenuated live vaccines from all over the world (100\% homology).},
  author       = {Avalakuppa Papi Reddy, Vishwanatha Reddy and Vercammen, Francis and Trus, Ivan and Nauwynck, Hans},
  issn         = {0303 9021},
  journal      = {VLAAMS DIERGENEESKUNDIG TIJDSCHRIFT},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {40--46},
  title        = {Contemporary outbreaks of different avipoxviruses in Humboldt penguins of wild animal park Planckendael and in chickens of commercial poultry farms in Belgium},
  url          = {http://vdt.ugent.be/sites/default/files/ArtinEnglish06.pdf},
  volume       = {86},
  year         = {2017},
}

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