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Investigating the rheological, microstructural and textural properties of chocolates sweetened with palm sap-based sugar by partial replacement

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Abstract
Palm sugar, a natural alternative sweetener which can be made from the nectar of several species of palm tree flowers, recently gains more interest. Due to its physicochemical characteristics, utilisation of palm sugar as chocolate sweetener results in different quality attributes of chocolate. In this work, a thorough investigation about the influence of palm sugar on the rheological, microstructural and textural characteristics of chocolate was carried out through partial replacement of sucrose as chocolate sweetener. Accordingly, five sucrose-palm sugar blends with different palm sugar (PS) proportion, namely PS0, PS25, PS50, PS75, and PS100 were used as chocolate sweetener. The results showed that the Casson yield value of chocolate containing palm sugar was lower than the Casson yield value of chocolate sweetened with pure sucrose which could be attributed to the presence of agglomerates in the chocolate suspension. However, palm sugar-sweetened chocolate exhibited a higher Casson viscosity and thixotropy which could be mainly attributed to the presence of glucose and fructose and the relatively high moisture content. These factors also influenced the hardness of the chocolate to some extent. A lower melting temperature and enthalpy value of the sugar phase in chocolate were observed by DSC, whereas visualisation using SEM, polarised and normal light microscopy indicated increased agglomeration due to the presence of moisture, amorphous sugar and chemical "impurities". Rheological behaviour of molten chocolate, hardness and polarised-normalised light microscopy were evaluated at a constant temperature of 40, 20, and 50 degrees C, respectively, while the melting profile was measured from 20 to 200 degrees C at a rate of 5 degrees C/min.
Keywords
Palm sugar-sucrose blends, Alternative sweetener, Dark chocolate, Rheological behaviour, Chocolate hardness, Chocolate microstructure, Particle interaction, SIZE DISTRIBUTION, DARK CHOCOLATE, MILK CHOCOLATE, OPTIMIZATION, ANTIOXIDANT, APPEARANCE

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MLA
Saputro, Arifin Dwi et al. “Investigating the Rheological, Microstructural and Textural Properties of Chocolates Sweetened with Palm Sap-based Sugar by Partial Replacement.” EUROPEAN FOOD RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY 243.10 (2017): 1729–1738. Print.
APA
Saputro, A. D., Van de Walle, D., Kadivar, S., Sintang, M. D. B., Van Der Meeren, P., & Dewettinck, K. (2017). Investigating the rheological, microstructural and textural properties of chocolates sweetened with palm sap-based sugar by partial replacement. EUROPEAN FOOD RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY, 243(10), 1729–1738.
Chicago author-date
Saputro, Arifin Dwi, Davy Van de Walle, Sheida Kadivar, Mohd Dona Bin Sintang, Paul Van Der Meeren, and Koen Dewettinck. 2017. “Investigating the Rheological, Microstructural and Textural Properties of Chocolates Sweetened with Palm Sap-based Sugar by Partial Replacement.” European Food Research and Technology 243 (10): 1729–1738.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Saputro, Arifin Dwi, Davy Van de Walle, Sheida Kadivar, Mohd Dona Bin Sintang, Paul Van Der Meeren, and Koen Dewettinck. 2017. “Investigating the Rheological, Microstructural and Textural Properties of Chocolates Sweetened with Palm Sap-based Sugar by Partial Replacement.” European Food Research and Technology 243 (10): 1729–1738.
Vancouver
1.
Saputro AD, Van de Walle D, Kadivar S, Sintang MDB, Van Der Meeren P, Dewettinck K. Investigating the rheological, microstructural and textural properties of chocolates sweetened with palm sap-based sugar by partial replacement. EUROPEAN FOOD RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY. 2017;243(10):1729–38.
IEEE
[1]
A. D. Saputro, D. Van de Walle, S. Kadivar, M. D. B. Sintang, P. Van Der Meeren, and K. Dewettinck, “Investigating the rheological, microstructural and textural properties of chocolates sweetened with palm sap-based sugar by partial replacement,” EUROPEAN FOOD RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY, vol. 243, no. 10, pp. 1729–1738, 2017.
@article{8516426,
  abstract     = {Palm sugar, a natural alternative sweetener which can be made from the nectar of several species of palm tree flowers, recently gains more interest. Due to its physicochemical characteristics, utilisation of palm sugar as chocolate sweetener results in different quality attributes of chocolate. In this work, a thorough investigation about the influence of palm sugar on the rheological, microstructural and textural characteristics of chocolate was carried out through partial replacement of sucrose as chocolate sweetener. Accordingly, five sucrose-palm sugar blends with different palm sugar (PS) proportion, namely PS0, PS25, PS50, PS75, and PS100 were used as chocolate sweetener. The results showed that the Casson yield value of chocolate containing palm sugar was lower than the Casson yield value of chocolate sweetened with pure sucrose which could be attributed to the presence of agglomerates in the chocolate suspension. However, palm sugar-sweetened chocolate exhibited a higher Casson viscosity and thixotropy which could be mainly attributed to the presence of glucose and fructose and the relatively high moisture content. These factors also influenced the hardness of the chocolate to some extent. A lower melting temperature and enthalpy value of the sugar phase in chocolate were observed by DSC, whereas visualisation using SEM, polarised and normal light microscopy indicated increased agglomeration due to the presence of moisture, amorphous sugar and chemical "impurities". Rheological behaviour of molten chocolate, hardness and polarised-normalised light microscopy were evaluated at a constant temperature of 40, 20, and 50 degrees C, respectively, while the melting profile was measured from 20 to 200 degrees C at a rate of 5 degrees C/min.},
  author       = {Saputro, Arifin Dwi and Van de Walle, Davy and Kadivar, Sheida and Sintang, Mohd Dona Bin and Van der Meeren, Paul and Dewettinck, Koen},
  issn         = {1438-2377},
  journal      = {EUROPEAN FOOD RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY},
  keywords     = {Palm sugar-sucrose blends,Alternative sweetener,Dark chocolate,Rheological behaviour,Chocolate hardness,Chocolate microstructure,Particle interaction,SIZE DISTRIBUTION,DARK CHOCOLATE,MILK CHOCOLATE,OPTIMIZATION,ANTIOXIDANT,APPEARANCE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {10},
  pages        = {1729--1738},
  title        = {Investigating the rheological, microstructural and textural properties of chocolates sweetened with palm sap-based sugar by partial replacement},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00217-017-2877-3},
  volume       = {243},
  year         = {2017},
}

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