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Systematic evaluation of chronic metal-mixture toxicity to three species and implications for risk assessment

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Abstract
Metal contamination generally occurs as mixtures. However, it is yet unresolved how to address metal mixtures in risk assessment. Therefore, using consistent methodologies, we have set up experiments to identify which mixture model applies best at low level effects, i.e. the independent action (IA) or concentration addition (CA) reference model. Toxicity of metal mixtures (Ni, Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb) to Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Hordeum vulgare was investigated in different waters or soils, totaling 30 different experiments. Some mixtures of different metals, each individually causing <10% inhibition, yielded much larger inhibition (up to 66%) when dosed in combination. In general, IA was most accurate in predicting mixture toxicity, while CA was most conservative. At low effect levels important in risk assessments, CA overestimated mixture toxicity to daphnids and H. vulgare on average with a factor 1.4 to 3.6. Observed mixture interactions could be related to bioavailability, or by competition interactions either for binding sites of dissolved organic carbon or for biotic ligand sites. Our study suggests that the current metal-by-metal approach in risk evaluations may not be conservative enough for metal mixtures.
Keywords
MODELING EVALUATION PROJECT, DISSIMILARLY ACTING CHEMICALS, BIOTIC LIGAND MODEL, INDEPENDENT ACTION, CERIODAPHNIA-DUBIA, ZINC, COPPER, CADMIUM, NICKEL, BARLEY

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MLA
Nys, Charlotte et al. “Systematic Evaluation of Chronic Metal-mixture Toxicity to Three Species and Implications for Risk Assessment.” ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 51.8 (2017): 4615–4623. Print.
APA
Nys, C., Versieren, L., Cordery, K., Blust, R., Smolders, E., & De Schamphelaere, K. (2017). Systematic evaluation of chronic metal-mixture toxicity to three species and implications for risk assessment. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, 51(8), 4615–4623.
Chicago author-date
Nys, Charlotte, Liske Versieren, Katherine Cordery, Ronny Blust, Erik Smolders, and Karel De Schamphelaere. 2017. “Systematic Evaluation of Chronic Metal-mixture Toxicity to Three Species and Implications for Risk Assessment.” Environmental Science & Technology 51 (8): 4615–4623.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Nys, Charlotte, Liske Versieren, Katherine Cordery, Ronny Blust, Erik Smolders, and Karel De Schamphelaere. 2017. “Systematic Evaluation of Chronic Metal-mixture Toxicity to Three Species and Implications for Risk Assessment.” Environmental Science & Technology 51 (8): 4615–4623.
Vancouver
1.
Nys C, Versieren L, Cordery K, Blust R, Smolders E, De Schamphelaere K. Systematic evaluation of chronic metal-mixture toxicity to three species and implications for risk assessment. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY. 2017;51(8):4615–23.
IEEE
[1]
C. Nys, L. Versieren, K. Cordery, R. Blust, E. Smolders, and K. De Schamphelaere, “Systematic evaluation of chronic metal-mixture toxicity to three species and implications for risk assessment,” ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 4615–4623, 2017.
@article{8515710,
  abstract     = {Metal contamination generally occurs as mixtures. However, it is yet unresolved how to address metal mixtures in risk assessment. Therefore, using consistent methodologies, we have set up experiments to identify which mixture model applies best at low level effects, i.e. the independent action (IA) or concentration addition (CA) reference model. Toxicity of metal mixtures (Ni, Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb) to Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Hordeum vulgare was investigated in different waters or soils, totaling 30 different experiments. Some mixtures of different metals, each individually causing <10% inhibition, yielded much larger inhibition (up to 66%) when dosed in combination. In general, IA was most accurate in predicting mixture toxicity, while CA was most conservative. At low effect levels important in risk assessments, CA overestimated mixture toxicity to daphnids and H. vulgare on average with a factor 1.4 to 3.6. Observed mixture interactions could be related to bioavailability, or by competition interactions either for binding sites of dissolved organic carbon or for biotic ligand sites. Our study suggests that the current metal-by-metal approach in risk evaluations may not be conservative enough for metal mixtures.},
  author       = {Nys, Charlotte and Versieren, Liske and Cordery, Katherine and Blust, Ronny and Smolders, Erik and De Schamphelaere, Karel},
  issn         = {0013-936X},
  journal      = {ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY},
  keywords     = {MODELING EVALUATION PROJECT,DISSIMILARLY ACTING CHEMICALS,BIOTIC LIGAND MODEL,INDEPENDENT ACTION,CERIODAPHNIA-DUBIA,ZINC,COPPER,CADMIUM,NICKEL,BARLEY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {8},
  pages        = {4615--4623},
  title        = {Systematic evaluation of chronic metal-mixture toxicity to three species and implications for risk assessment},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b05688},
  volume       = {51},
  year         = {2017},
}

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