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End-stage cystic fibrosis lung disease is characterised by a diverse inflammatory pattern : an immunohistochemical analysis

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Abstract
Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is characterised by vigorous airway inflammation eventually resulting in severe lung damage. This study aimed to describe the diversity of the inflammatory pattern in end-stage CF lungs by evaluating and quantifying which components of the innate and adaptive immunity are involved, and by assessing whether this is gender-specific. Methods: CF explant lung tissue (n = 20) collected at time of transplantation and control tissue (n = 22) was sectioned (9 mu m) and stained for neutrophils, eosinophils, mast cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, CD4 T cells, cytotoxic T cells and B cells. Quantification with special attention for immune cell location was performed. Results: Neutrophils, mast cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, CD4 T and cytotoxic T cells were significantly increased in CF compared to controls and there was a disproportionate increase of neutrophils around the airways in CF. Large amounts of lymphoid follicles were found in the CF lung and they had a skewed B cell/T cell composition. Upon subdividing the CF patients into a male and female population, eosinophils, mast cells and CD4 T cells were increased specifically in CF females. In this subpopulation, lymphoid follicles had less B cells and more CD8 T cells. Conclusion: These data demonstrate a diverse inflammatory response in the CF lung, reflected by an increase of both myeloid and lymphoid immune cells. Inflammation in the CF lung appeared to be gender-specific in our population, as the significant increase of eosinophils, mast cells and CD4 T cells was especially notable in the female subpopulation.
Keywords
AIRWAY INFLAMMATION, LYMPHOID FOLLICLES, GENDER-DIFFERENCES, CELLS, MORTALITY, ESTROGEN, MUCOSA, IL-17A, GAP, Cellular immune system, Histopathology, Lung immunopathology

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MLA
Lammertyn, Elise J et al. “End-stage Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease Is Characterised by a Diverse Inflammatory Pattern : an Immunohistochemical Analysis.” RESPIRATORY RESEARCH 18 (2017): n. pag. Print.
APA
Lammertyn, E. J., Vandermeulen, E., Bellon, H., Everaerts, S., Verleden, S. E., Van den Eynde, K., Bracke, K., et al. (2017). End-stage cystic fibrosis lung disease is characterised by a diverse inflammatory pattern : an immunohistochemical analysis. RESPIRATORY RESEARCH, 18.
Chicago author-date
Lammertyn, Elise J, Elly Vandermeulen, Hannelore Bellon, Stephanie Everaerts, Stijn E Verleden, Kathleen Van den Eynde, Ken Bracke, et al. 2017. “End-stage Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease Is Characterised by a Diverse Inflammatory Pattern : an Immunohistochemical Analysis.” Respiratory Research 18.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Lammertyn, Elise J, Elly Vandermeulen, Hannelore Bellon, Stephanie Everaerts, Stijn E Verleden, Kathleen Van den Eynde, Ken Bracke, Guy Brusselle, Pieter C Goeminne, Erik K Verbeken, Bart M Vanaudenaerde, and Lieven J Dupont. 2017. “End-stage Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease Is Characterised by a Diverse Inflammatory Pattern : an Immunohistochemical Analysis.” Respiratory Research 18.
Vancouver
1.
Lammertyn EJ, Vandermeulen E, Bellon H, Everaerts S, Verleden SE, Van den Eynde K, et al. End-stage cystic fibrosis lung disease is characterised by a diverse inflammatory pattern : an immunohistochemical analysis. RESPIRATORY RESEARCH. 2017;18.
IEEE
[1]
E. J. Lammertyn et al., “End-stage cystic fibrosis lung disease is characterised by a diverse inflammatory pattern : an immunohistochemical analysis,” RESPIRATORY RESEARCH, vol. 18, 2017.
@article{8515379,
  abstract     = {Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is characterised by vigorous airway inflammation eventually resulting in severe lung damage. This study aimed to describe the diversity of the inflammatory pattern in end-stage CF lungs by evaluating and quantifying which components of the innate and adaptive immunity are involved, and by assessing whether this is gender-specific. 
Methods: CF explant lung tissue (n = 20) collected at time of transplantation and control tissue (n = 22) was sectioned (9 mu m) and stained for neutrophils, eosinophils, mast cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, CD4 T cells, cytotoxic T cells and B cells. Quantification with special attention for immune cell location was performed. 
Results: Neutrophils, mast cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, CD4 T and cytotoxic T cells were significantly increased in CF compared to controls and there was a disproportionate increase of neutrophils around the airways in CF. Large amounts of lymphoid follicles were found in the CF lung and they had a skewed B cell/T cell composition. Upon subdividing the CF patients into a male and female population, eosinophils, mast cells and CD4 T cells were increased specifically in CF females. In this subpopulation, lymphoid follicles had less B cells and more CD8 T cells. 
Conclusion: These data demonstrate a diverse inflammatory response in the CF lung, reflected by an increase of both myeloid and lymphoid immune cells. Inflammation in the CF lung appeared to be gender-specific in our population, as the significant increase of eosinophils, mast cells and CD4 T cells was especially notable in the female subpopulation.},
  articleno    = {10},
  author       = {Lammertyn, Elise J and Vandermeulen, Elly and Bellon, Hannelore and Everaerts, Stephanie and Verleden, Stijn E and Van den Eynde, Kathleen and Bracke, Ken and Brusselle, Guy and Goeminne, Pieter C and Verbeken, Erik K and Vanaudenaerde, Bart M and Dupont, Lieven J},
  issn         = {1465-993X},
  journal      = {RESPIRATORY RESEARCH},
  keywords     = {AIRWAY INFLAMMATION,LYMPHOID FOLLICLES,GENDER-DIFFERENCES,CELLS,MORTALITY,ESTROGEN,MUCOSA,IL-17A,GAP,Cellular immune system,Histopathology,Lung immunopathology},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {9},
  title        = {End-stage cystic fibrosis lung disease is characterised by a diverse inflammatory pattern : an immunohistochemical analysis},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12931-016-0489-2},
  volume       = {18},
  year         = {2017},
}

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