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Constraints for future cocoa production in Ghana

(2018) AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS. 92(5). p.1373-1385
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Abstract
To address the growing global demand for cocoa, sustainable intensification of its production in West Africa is considered crucial. This paper analyzes the determinants of cocoa productivity and profitability by smallholder farmers in Ghana to provide insights into challenges for future cocoa farming, which will guide the formulation and prioritization of tailored policies to address them. A four-stage sampling technique was used to select a total of 731 cocoa farmers from various districts in all six cocoa growing regions in Ghana. Selected farmers were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. The results show that cocoa productivity and profitability was very low with an average of 234kgha(-1) and GhC 568 (ca. US$ 150) per ha, respectively. Farm management practices, namely control of capsid and black pod disease, fertilizer application and pruning, significantly (p<0.05) influenced cocoa productivity. Capsid control and fertilizer application showed the highest impact on productivity. Farm size, however, had a negative impact, which implies that increase in farm size results in decreased smallholder cocoa productivity. Farmers should be encouraged to sustainably intensify farm management through controlling black pod disease and capsids, regular pruning and efficient application of fertilizer rather than focusing on excessive land expansion, which eventually hampers productivity and biodiversity.
Keywords
Cocoa, Ghana, Productivity, Smallholder farmers, Sustainable intensification, BLACK POD DISEASE, PHYTOPHTHORA-MEGAKARYA, THEOBROMA-CACAO

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Chicago
Kongor, John Edem, Hans De Steur, Davy Van de Walle, Xavier Gellynck, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Pascal Boeckx, and Koen Dewettinck. 2018. “Constraints for Future Cocoa Production in Ghana.” Agroforestry Systems 92 (5): 1373–1385.
APA
Kongor, J. E., De Steur, H., Van de Walle, D., Gellynck, X., Afoakwa, E. O., Boeckx, P., & Dewettinck, K. (2018). Constraints for future cocoa production in Ghana. AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS, 92(5), 1373–1385.
Vancouver
1.
Kongor JE, De Steur H, Van de Walle D, Gellynck X, Afoakwa EO, Boeckx P, et al. Constraints for future cocoa production in Ghana. AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS. 2018;92(5):1373–85.
MLA
Kongor, John Edem, Hans De Steur, Davy Van de Walle, et al. “Constraints for Future Cocoa Production in Ghana.” AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS 92.5 (2018): 1373–1385. Print.
@article{8515072,
  abstract     = {To address the growing global demand for cocoa, sustainable intensification of its production in West Africa is considered crucial. This paper analyzes the determinants of cocoa productivity and profitability by smallholder farmers in Ghana to provide insights into challenges for future cocoa farming, which will guide the formulation and prioritization of tailored policies to address them. A four-stage sampling technique was used to select a total of 731 cocoa farmers from various districts in all six cocoa growing regions in Ghana. Selected farmers were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. The results show that cocoa productivity and profitability was very low with an average of 234kgha(-1) and GhC 568 (ca. US\$ 150) per ha, respectively. Farm management practices, namely control of capsid and black pod disease, fertilizer application and pruning, significantly (p{\textlangle}0.05) influenced cocoa productivity. Capsid control and fertilizer application showed the highest impact on productivity. Farm size, however, had a negative impact, which implies that increase in farm size results in decreased smallholder cocoa productivity. Farmers should be encouraged to sustainably intensify farm management through controlling black pod disease and capsids, regular pruning and efficient application of fertilizer rather than focusing on excessive land expansion, which eventually hampers productivity and biodiversity.},
  author       = {Kongor, John Edem and De Steur, Hans and Van de Walle, Davy and Gellynck, Xavier and Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene and Boeckx, Pascal and Dewettinck, Koen},
  issn         = {0167-4366},
  journal      = {AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS},
  keyword      = {Cocoa,Ghana,Productivity,Smallholder farmers,Sustainable intensification,BLACK POD DISEASE,PHYTOPHTHORA-MEGAKARYA,THEOBROMA-CACAO},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {1373--1385},
  title        = {Constraints for future cocoa production in Ghana},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10457-017-0082-9},
  volume       = {92},
  year         = {2018},
}

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