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Clinical biopsychosocial physiotherapy assessment of patients with chronic pain : the first step in pain neuroscience education

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Abstract
Pain neuroscience education (PNE) is increasingly used as part of a physical therapy treatment in patients with chronic pain. A thorough clinical biopsychosocial assessment is recommended prior to PNE to allow proper explanation of the neurophysiology of pain and the biopsychosocial interactions in an interactive and patient-centered manner. However, without clear guidelines, clinicians are left wondering how a biopsychosocial assessment should be administered. Therefore, we provided a practical guide, based on scientific research and clinical experience, for the biopsychosocial assessment of patients with chronic pain in physiotherapy practice. The purpose of this article is to describe the use of the Pain - Somatic factors - Cognitive factors - Emotional factors - Behavioral factors - Social factors - Motivation - model (PSCEBSM-model) during the intake, as well as a pain analysis sheet. This model attempts to clearly establish what the dominant pain mechanism is (predominant nociceptive, neuropathic, or non-neuropathic central sensitization pain), as well as to assess the provoking and perpetuating biopsychosocial factors in patients with chronic pain. Using this approach allows the clinician to specifically classify patients and tailor the plan of care, including PNE, to individual patients.
Keywords
Assessment, biopsychosocial, education, neuroscience, pain, LOW-BACK-PAIN, CHRONIC-FATIGUE-SYNDROME, CHRONIC MUSCULOSKELETAL PAIN, RANDOMIZED-CONTROLLED-TRIAL, ILLNESS PERCEPTION QUESTIONNAIRE, CENTRAL SENSITIZATION INVENTORY, POSTTRAUMATIC-STRESS-DISORDER, TRAIT ANXIETY INVENTORY, FEAR-AVOIDANCE MODEL, CHRONIC WHIPLASH

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MLA
Wijma, Amarins J., et al. “Clinical Biopsychosocial Physiotherapy Assessment of Patients with Chronic Pain : The First Step in Pain Neuroscience Education.” PHYSIOTHERAPY THEORY AND PRACTICE, vol. 32, no. 5, 2016, pp. 368–84, doi:10.1080/09593985.2016.1194651.
APA
Wijma, A. J., van Wilgen, C. P., Meeus, M., & Nijs, J. (2016). Clinical biopsychosocial physiotherapy assessment of patients with chronic pain : the first step in pain neuroscience education. PHYSIOTHERAPY THEORY AND PRACTICE, 32(5), 368–384. https://doi.org/10.1080/09593985.2016.1194651
Chicago author-date
Wijma, Amarins J, C Paul van Wilgen, Mira Meeus, and Jo Nijs. 2016. “Clinical Biopsychosocial Physiotherapy Assessment of Patients with Chronic Pain : The First Step in Pain Neuroscience Education.” PHYSIOTHERAPY THEORY AND PRACTICE 32 (5): 368–84. https://doi.org/10.1080/09593985.2016.1194651.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Wijma, Amarins J, C Paul van Wilgen, Mira Meeus, and Jo Nijs. 2016. “Clinical Biopsychosocial Physiotherapy Assessment of Patients with Chronic Pain : The First Step in Pain Neuroscience Education.” PHYSIOTHERAPY THEORY AND PRACTICE 32 (5): 368–384. doi:10.1080/09593985.2016.1194651.
Vancouver
1.
Wijma AJ, van Wilgen CP, Meeus M, Nijs J. Clinical biopsychosocial physiotherapy assessment of patients with chronic pain : the first step in pain neuroscience education. PHYSIOTHERAPY THEORY AND PRACTICE. 2016;32(5):368–84.
IEEE
[1]
A. J. Wijma, C. P. van Wilgen, M. Meeus, and J. Nijs, “Clinical biopsychosocial physiotherapy assessment of patients with chronic pain : the first step in pain neuroscience education,” PHYSIOTHERAPY THEORY AND PRACTICE, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 368–384, 2016.
@article{8514950,
  abstract     = {{Pain neuroscience education (PNE) is increasingly used as part of a physical therapy treatment in patients with chronic pain. A thorough clinical biopsychosocial assessment is recommended prior to PNE to allow proper explanation of the neurophysiology of pain and the biopsychosocial interactions in an interactive and patient-centered manner. However, without clear guidelines, clinicians are left wondering how a biopsychosocial assessment should be administered. Therefore, we provided a practical guide, based on scientific research and clinical experience, for the biopsychosocial assessment of patients with chronic pain in physiotherapy practice. The purpose of this article is to describe the use of the Pain - Somatic factors - Cognitive factors - Emotional factors - Behavioral factors - Social factors - Motivation - model (PSCEBSM-model) during the intake, as well as a pain analysis sheet. This model attempts to clearly establish what the dominant pain mechanism is (predominant nociceptive, neuropathic, or non-neuropathic central sensitization pain), as well as to assess the provoking and perpetuating biopsychosocial factors in patients with chronic pain. Using this approach allows the clinician to specifically classify patients and tailor the plan of care, including PNE, to individual patients.}},
  author       = {{Wijma, Amarins J and van Wilgen, C Paul and Meeus, Mira and Nijs, Jo}},
  issn         = {{0959-3985}},
  journal      = {{PHYSIOTHERAPY THEORY AND PRACTICE}},
  keywords     = {{Assessment,biopsychosocial,education,neuroscience,pain,LOW-BACK-PAIN,CHRONIC-FATIGUE-SYNDROME,CHRONIC MUSCULOSKELETAL PAIN,RANDOMIZED-CONTROLLED-TRIAL,ILLNESS PERCEPTION QUESTIONNAIRE,CENTRAL SENSITIZATION INVENTORY,POSTTRAUMATIC-STRESS-DISORDER,TRAIT ANXIETY INVENTORY,FEAR-AVOIDANCE MODEL,CHRONIC WHIPLASH}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{5}},
  pages        = {{368--384}},
  title        = {{Clinical biopsychosocial physiotherapy assessment of patients with chronic pain : the first step in pain neuroscience education}},
  url          = {{http://doi.org/10.1080/09593985.2016.1194651}},
  volume       = {{32}},
  year         = {{2016}},
}

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