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Phytomanagement of heavy metals in contaminated soils using sunflower : a review

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Abstract
Contamination of soils with heavy metals (HMs) is an important issue due to the contamination of agricultural crops, which are further transferred into the food chain. Phytoremediation is an emerging method of remediating metal-contaminated soils. Sunflower has been widely adopted for phytomanagement of HM-contaminated soils owing to its high biomass production and capacity for metal accumulation. Sunflowers can tolerate the toxic effects of certain HMs through different mechanisms, such as enhancements in antioxidant enzyme activities, deposition in nonactive parts of the plant, and stimulation of osmolytes. Stress caused by HMs affected negatively the seed germination, nutritional status, photosynthesis, and growth of sunflower. However, the responses of sunflowers to this stress vary with cultivar/variety, soil type, metal type, dose, and duration of metal exposure. This review critically summarizes the effects of HMs in sunflowers and examines field-relevant approaches to improve the phytoextraction capability of sunflowers. Proper selection of tolerant cultivars along with agronomic practices may be an effective strategy for the phytomanagement of soils contaminated with HMs.
Keywords
Chelating agents, heavy metal tolerance, phytoremediation, plant growth regulators, HELIANTHUS-ANNUUS L., BRASSICA-NAPUS L, ANTIOXIDANT DEFENSE SYSTEM, ACID ASSISTED PHYTOREMEDIATION, ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI, SILICON-MEDIATED ALLEVIATION, PLANT-GROWTH, CITRIC-ACID, OXIDATIVE STRESS, ENHANCED PHYTOEXTRACTION

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MLA
Rizwan, Muhammad et al. “Phytomanagement of Heavy Metals in Contaminated Soils Using Sunflower : a Review.” CRITICAL REVIEWS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 46.18 (2016): 1498–1528. Print.
APA
Rizwan, M., Ali, S., Rizvi, H., Rinklebe, J., Tsang, D. C., Meers, E., Ok, Y. S., et al. (2016). Phytomanagement of heavy metals in contaminated soils using sunflower : a review. CRITICAL REVIEWS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 46(18), 1498–1528.
Chicago author-date
Rizwan, Muhammad, Shafaqat Ali, Hina Rizvi, Jörg Rinklebe, Daniel CW Tsang, Erik Meers, Yong Sik Ok, and Wajid Ishaque. 2016. “Phytomanagement of Heavy Metals in Contaminated Soils Using Sunflower : a Review.” Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 46 (18): 1498–1528.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Rizwan, Muhammad, Shafaqat Ali, Hina Rizvi, Jörg Rinklebe, Daniel CW Tsang, Erik Meers, Yong Sik Ok, and Wajid Ishaque. 2016. “Phytomanagement of Heavy Metals in Contaminated Soils Using Sunflower : a Review.” Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 46 (18): 1498–1528.
Vancouver
1.
Rizwan M, Ali S, Rizvi H, Rinklebe J, Tsang DC, Meers E, et al. Phytomanagement of heavy metals in contaminated soils using sunflower : a review. CRITICAL REVIEWS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. 2016;46(18):1498–528.
IEEE
[1]
M. Rizwan et al., “Phytomanagement of heavy metals in contaminated soils using sunflower : a review,” CRITICAL REVIEWS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, vol. 46, no. 18, pp. 1498–1528, 2016.
@article{8514495,
  abstract     = {Contamination of soils with heavy metals (HMs) is an important issue due to the contamination of agricultural crops, which are further transferred into the food chain. Phytoremediation is an emerging method of remediating metal-contaminated soils. Sunflower has been widely adopted for phytomanagement of HM-contaminated soils owing to its high biomass production and capacity for metal accumulation. Sunflowers can tolerate the toxic effects of certain HMs through different mechanisms, such as enhancements in antioxidant enzyme activities, deposition in nonactive parts of the plant, and stimulation of osmolytes. Stress caused by HMs affected negatively the seed germination, nutritional status, photosynthesis, and growth of sunflower. However, the responses of sunflowers to this stress vary with cultivar/variety, soil type, metal type, dose, and duration of metal exposure. This review critically summarizes the effects of HMs in sunflowers and examines field-relevant approaches to improve the phytoextraction capability of sunflowers. Proper selection of tolerant cultivars along with agronomic practices may be an effective strategy for the phytomanagement of soils contaminated with HMs.},
  author       = {Rizwan, Muhammad and Ali, Shafaqat and Rizvi, Hina and Rinklebe, Jörg and Tsang, Daniel CW and Meers, Erik and Ok, Yong Sik and Ishaque, Wajid},
  issn         = {1064-3389},
  journal      = {CRITICAL REVIEWS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY},
  keywords     = {Chelating agents,heavy metal tolerance,phytoremediation,plant growth regulators,HELIANTHUS-ANNUUS L.,BRASSICA-NAPUS L,ANTIOXIDANT DEFENSE SYSTEM,ACID ASSISTED PHYTOREMEDIATION,ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI,SILICON-MEDIATED ALLEVIATION,PLANT-GROWTH,CITRIC-ACID,OXIDATIVE STRESS,ENHANCED PHYTOEXTRACTION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {18},
  pages        = {1498--1528},
  title        = {Phytomanagement of heavy metals in contaminated soils using sunflower : a review},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10643389.2016.1248199},
  volume       = {46},
  year         = {2016},
}

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