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Perspective: Is there a hysteresis during reactive High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (R-HiPIMS)?

Koen Strijckmans (UGent) , Filip Moens (UGent) and Diederik Depla (UGent)
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Abstract
This paper discusses a few mechanisms that can assist to answer the title question. The initial approach is to use an established model for DC magnetron sputter deposition, i.e., RSD2013. Based on this model, the impact on the hysteresis behaviour of some typical HiPIMS conditions is investigated. From this first study, it becomes clear that the probability to observe hysteresis is much lower as compared to DC magnetron sputtering. The high current pulses cannot explain the hysteresis reduction. Total pressure and material choice make the abrupt changes less pronounced, but the implantation of ionized metal atoms that return to the target seems to be the major cause. To further substantiate these results, the analytical reactive sputtering model is coupled with a published global plasma model. The effect of metal ion implantation is confirmed. Another suggested mechanism, i.e., gas rarefaction, can be ruled out to explain the hysteresis reduction. But perhaps the major conclusion is that at present, there are too little experimental data available to make fully sound conclusions.
Keywords
LOW-FREQUENCY MODULATION, DEPOSITION RATE, DISCHARGE CURRENT, PULSED DC, OXYGEN, FILMS, AL(111), ALUMINUM, BEHAVIOR, MODEL

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MLA
Strijckmans, Koen, et al. “Perspective: Is There a Hysteresis during Reactive High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (R-HiPIMS)?” JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, vol. 121, no. 8, 2017.
APA
Strijckmans, K., Moens, F., & Depla, D. (2017). Perspective: Is there a hysteresis during reactive High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (R-HiPIMS)? JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 121(8).
Chicago author-date
Strijckmans, Koen, Filip Moens, and Diederik Depla. 2017. “Perspective: Is There a Hysteresis during Reactive High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (R-HiPIMS)?” JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS 121 (8).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Strijckmans, Koen, Filip Moens, and Diederik Depla. 2017. “Perspective: Is There a Hysteresis during Reactive High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (R-HiPIMS)?” JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS 121 (8).
Vancouver
1.
Strijckmans K, Moens F, Depla D. Perspective: Is there a hysteresis during reactive High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (R-HiPIMS)? JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS. 2017;121(8).
IEEE
[1]
K. Strijckmans, F. Moens, and D. Depla, “Perspective: Is there a hysteresis during reactive High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (R-HiPIMS)?,” JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, vol. 121, no. 8, 2017.
@article{8514303,
  abstract     = {This paper discusses a few mechanisms that can assist to answer the title question. The initial approach is to use an established model for DC magnetron sputter deposition, i.e., RSD2013. Based on this model, the impact on the hysteresis behaviour of some typical HiPIMS conditions is investigated. From this first study, it becomes clear that the probability to observe hysteresis is much lower as compared to DC magnetron sputtering. The high current pulses cannot explain the hysteresis reduction. Total pressure and material choice make the abrupt changes less pronounced, but the implantation of ionized metal atoms that return to the target seems to be the major cause. To further substantiate these results, the analytical reactive sputtering model is coupled with a published global plasma model. The effect of metal ion implantation is confirmed. Another suggested mechanism, i.e., gas rarefaction, can be ruled out to explain the hysteresis reduction. But perhaps the major conclusion is that at present, there are too little experimental data available to make fully sound conclusions.},
  articleno    = {080901},
  author       = {Strijckmans, Koen and Moens, Filip and Depla, Diederik},
  issn         = {0021-8979},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS},
  keywords     = {LOW-FREQUENCY MODULATION,DEPOSITION RATE,DISCHARGE CURRENT,PULSED DC,OXYGEN,FILMS,AL(111),ALUMINUM,BEHAVIOR,MODEL},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {8},
  pages        = {12},
  title        = {Perspective: Is there a hysteresis during reactive High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (R-HiPIMS)?},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4976717},
  volume       = {121},
  year         = {2017},
}

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