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Effect of medical interventions on gender dysphoria and body image : a follow-up study.

(2017) PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE. 79(7). p.815-823
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Abstract
Objective: The aim of this study from the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence is to investigate the status of all individuals who had applied for gender confirming interventions from 2007 to 2009, irrespective of whether they received treatment. The current article describes the study protocol, the effect of medical treatment on gender dysphoria and body image, and the predictive value of (pre) treatment factors on posttreatment outcomes. Methods: Data were collected on medical interventions, transition status, gender dysphoria (Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale), and body image (Body Image Scale for transsexuals). In total, 201 people participated in the study (37% of the original cohort). Results: At follow-up, 29 participants (14%) did not receive medical interventions, 36 hormones only (18%), and 136 hormones and surgery (68%). Most transwomen had undergone genital surgery, and most transmen chest surgery. Overall, the levels of gender dysphoria and body dissatisfaction were significantly lower at follow-up compared with clinical entry. Satisfaction with therapy responsive and unresponsive body characteristics both improved. High dissatisfaction at admission and lower psychological functioning at follow-up were associated with persistent body dissatisfaction. Conclusions: Hormone-based interventions and surgery were followed by improvements in body satisfaction. The level of psychological symptoms and the degree of body satisfaction at baseline were significantly associated with body satisfaction at follow-up.
Keywords
body image, gender dysphoria, gender incongruence, hormone therapy, gender confirming surgery, SEX REASSIGNMENT, IDENTITY DISORDER, ALLOSTATIC LOAD, TRANSSEXUALS, ADOLESCENT, THERAPY, SCALE, SATISFACTION, ORIENTATION, OUTCOMES

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Chicago
van de Grift, Tim, Els Elaut, Susanne C Cerwenka, Peggy T Cohen-Kettenis, GRETA DE CUYPERE, Hertha Richter-Appelt, and Baudewijntje PC Kreukels. 2017. “Effect of Medical Interventions on Gender Dysphoria and Body Image : a Follow-up Study.” Psychosomatic Medicine 79 (7): 815–823.
APA
van de Grift, T., Elaut, E., Cerwenka, S. C., Cohen-Kettenis, P. T., DE CUYPERE, G., Richter-Appelt, H., & Kreukels, B. P. (2017). Effect of medical interventions on gender dysphoria and body image : a follow-up study. PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE, 79(7), 815–823.
Vancouver
1.
van de Grift T, Elaut E, Cerwenka SC, Cohen-Kettenis PT, DE CUYPERE G, Richter-Appelt H, et al. Effect of medical interventions on gender dysphoria and body image : a follow-up study. PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE. 2017;79(7):815–23.
MLA
van de Grift, Tim, Els Elaut, Susanne C Cerwenka, et al. “Effect of Medical Interventions on Gender Dysphoria and Body Image : a Follow-up Study.” PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE 79.7 (2017): 815–823. Print.
@article{8513150,
  abstract     = {Objective: The aim of this study from the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence is to investigate the status of all individuals who had applied for gender confirming interventions from 2007 to 2009, irrespective of whether they received treatment. The current article describes the study protocol, the effect of medical treatment on gender dysphoria and body image, and the predictive value of (pre) treatment factors on posttreatment outcomes. 
Methods: Data were collected on medical interventions, transition status, gender dysphoria (Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale), and body image (Body Image Scale for transsexuals). In total, 201 people participated in the study (37\% of the original cohort). 
Results: At follow-up, 29 participants (14\%) did not receive medical interventions, 36 hormones only (18\%), and 136 hormones and surgery (68\%). Most transwomen had undergone genital surgery, and most transmen chest surgery. Overall, the levels of gender dysphoria and body dissatisfaction were significantly lower at follow-up compared with clinical entry. Satisfaction with therapy responsive and unresponsive body characteristics both improved. High dissatisfaction at admission and lower psychological functioning at follow-up were associated with persistent body dissatisfaction. 
Conclusions: Hormone-based interventions and surgery were followed by improvements in body satisfaction. The level of psychological symptoms and the degree of body satisfaction at baseline were significantly associated with body satisfaction at follow-up.},
  author       = {van de Grift, Tim and Elaut, Els and Cerwenka, Susanne C and Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T and DE CUYPERE, GRETA and Richter-Appelt, Hertha and Kreukels, Baudewijntje PC},
  issn         = { 0033-3174},
  journal      = {PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {7},
  pages        = {815--823},
  title        = {Effect of medical interventions on gender dysphoria and body image : a follow-up study.},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000465},
  volume       = {79},
  year         = {2017},
}

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