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Detection of equine herpesvirus (EHV) -1, -2, -4 and -5 in Ethiopian equids with and without respiratory problems and genetic characterization of EHV-2 and EHV-5 strains

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Abstract
Infections with equine herpesviruses (EHVs) are widespread in equine popula- tions worldwide. Whereas both EHV-1 and EHV-4 produce well-documented respiratory syndromes in equids, the contribution of EHV-2 and EHV-5 to disease of the respiratory tract is still enigmatic. This study describes the detection and genetic characterization of EHVs from equids with and without clinical respiratory disease. Virus-specific PCRs were used to detect EHV-1, -2, -4 and -5. From the total of 160 equids with respiratory disease, EHV-5 was detected at the highest prevalence (23.1%), followed by EHV-2 (20.0%), EHV-4 (8.1%) and EHV-1 (7.5%). Concurrent infections with EHV-2 and EHV-5 were recorded from nine (5.2%) diseased horses. Of the total of 111 clinically healthy equids, EHV-1 and EHV-4 were never detected whereas EHV-2 and EHV-5 were found in 8 (7.2%) and 18 (16.2%) horses, respec- tively. A significantly higher proportion of EHV-2-infected equids was observed in the respiratory disease group (32/160, 20.0%; P = 0.005) com- pared to those without disease (8/111; 7.2%). EHV-2-positive equids were three times more likely to display clinical signs of respiratory disease than EHV-2-negative equids (OR 3.22, 95% CI: 1.42–7.28). For EHV-5, the observed difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.166). The phyloge- netic analysis of the gB gene revealed that the Ethiopian EHV-2 and EHV-5 strains had a remarkable genetic diversity, with a nucleotide sequence identity among each other that ranged from 94.0 to 99.4% and 95.1 to 100%, respec- tively. Moreover, the nucleotide sequence identity of EHV-2 and EHV-5 with isolates from other countries acquired from GenBank ranged from 92.9 to 99.1% and 95.1 to 99.5%, respectively. Our results suggest that besides EHV- 1 and EHV-4, EHV-2 is likely to be an important contributor either to induce or predispose equids to respiratory disease. However, more work is needed to better understand the contribution of EHV-2 in the establishment of respiratory disease.
Keywords
equine herpesviruses, respiratory disease, donkeys and horses, Ethiopia, POLYMERASE-CHAIN-REACTION, MULTINODULAR PULMONARY-FIBROSIS, TYPE-2 EHV-2, SEQUENCE-ANALYSIS, NEW-ZEALAND, HORSES, FOALS, PCR, GAMMAHERPESVIRUSES, IDENTIFICATION

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Chicago
Negussie-Dubale, Haileleul, D Gizaw, L Tesfaw, Yewei Li, K Oguma, H Sentsui, TS Tessema, and Hans Nauwynck. 2017. “Detection of Equine Herpesvirus (EHV) -1, -2, -4 and -5 in Ethiopian Equids with and Without Respiratory Problems and Genetic Characterization of EHV-2 and EHV-5 Strains.” Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 64 (6): 1970–1978.
APA
Negussie-Dubale, H., Gizaw, D., Tesfaw, L., Li, Y., Oguma, K., Sentsui, H., Tessema, T., et al. (2017). Detection of equine herpesvirus (EHV) -1, -2, -4 and -5 in Ethiopian equids with and without respiratory problems and genetic characterization of EHV-2 and EHV-5 strains. TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES, 64(6), 1970–1978.
Vancouver
1.
Negussie-Dubale H, Gizaw D, Tesfaw L, Li Y, Oguma K, Sentsui H, et al. Detection of equine herpesvirus (EHV) -1, -2, -4 and -5 in Ethiopian equids with and without respiratory problems and genetic characterization of EHV-2 and EHV-5 strains. TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES. 2017;64(6):1970–8.
MLA
Negussie-Dubale, Haileleul, D Gizaw, L Tesfaw, et al. “Detection of Equine Herpesvirus (EHV) -1, -2, -4 and -5 in Ethiopian Equids with and Without Respiratory Problems and Genetic Characterization of EHV-2 and EHV-5 Strains.” TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES 64.6 (2017): 1970–1978. Print.
@article{8512416,
  abstract     = {Infections with equine herpesviruses (EHVs) are widespread in equine popula- tions worldwide. Whereas both EHV-1 and EHV-4 produce well-documented respiratory syndromes in equids, the contribution of EHV-2 and EHV-5 to disease of the respiratory tract is still enigmatic. This study describes the detection and genetic characterization of EHVs from equids with and without clinical respiratory disease. Virus-specific PCRs were used to detect EHV-1, -2, -4 and -5. From the total of 160 equids with respiratory disease, EHV-5 was detected at the highest prevalence (23.1\%), followed by EHV-2 (20.0\%), EHV-4 (8.1\%) and EHV-1 (7.5\%). Concurrent infections with EHV-2 and EHV-5 were recorded from nine (5.2\%) diseased horses. Of the total of 111 clinically healthy equids, EHV-1 and EHV-4 were never detected whereas EHV-2 and EHV-5 were found in 8 (7.2\%) and 18 (16.2\%) horses, respec- tively. A significantly higher proportion of EHV-2-infected equids was observed in the respiratory disease group (32/160, 20.0\%; P = 0.005) com- pared to those without disease (8/111; 7.2\%). EHV-2-positive equids were three times more likely to display clinical signs of respiratory disease than EHV-2-negative equids (OR 3.22, 95\% CI: 1.42--7.28). For EHV-5, the observed difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.166). The phyloge- netic analysis of the gB gene revealed that the Ethiopian EHV-2 and EHV-5 strains had a remarkable genetic diversity, with a nucleotide sequence identity among each other that ranged from 94.0 to 99.4\% and 95.1 to 100\%, respec- tively. Moreover, the nucleotide sequence identity of EHV-2 and EHV-5 with isolates from other countries acquired from GenBank ranged from 92.9 to 99.1\% and 95.1 to 99.5\%, respectively. Our results suggest that besides EHV- 1 and EHV-4, EHV-2 is likely to be an important contributor either to induce or predispose equids to respiratory disease. However, more work is needed to better understand the contribution of EHV-2 in the establishment of respiratory disease.},
  author       = {Negussie-Dubale, Haileleul and Gizaw, D and Tesfaw, L and Li, Yewei and Oguma, K and Sentsui, H and Tessema, TS and Nauwynck, Hans},
  issn         = {1865-1674},
  journal      = {TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES},
  keyword      = {equine herpesviruses,respiratory disease,donkeys and horses,Ethiopia,POLYMERASE-CHAIN-REACTION,MULTINODULAR PULMONARY-FIBROSIS,TYPE-2 EHV-2,SEQUENCE-ANALYSIS,NEW-ZEALAND,HORSES,FOALS,PCR,GAMMAHERPESVIRUSES,IDENTIFICATION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {1970--1978},
  title        = {Detection of equine herpesvirus (EHV) -1, -2, -4 and -5 in Ethiopian equids with and without respiratory problems and genetic characterization of EHV-2 and EHV-5 strains},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.12601},
  volume       = {64},
  year         = {2017},
}

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