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Biomechanical implications of walking with indigenous footwear

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Abstract
Objectives: This study investigates biomechanical implications of walking with indigenous "Kolhapuri" footwear compared to barefoot walking among a population of South Indians. Materials and methods: Ten healthy adults from South India walked barefoot and indigenously shod at voluntary speed on an artificial substrate. The experiment was repeated outside, on a natural substrate. Data were collected from (1) a heel-mounted 3D-accelerometer recording peak impact at heel contact, (2) an ankle-mounted 3D-goniometer (plantar/dorsiflexion and inversion/ eversion), and (3) sEMG electrodes at the m. tibialis anterior and the m. gastrocnemius medialis. Results: Data show that the effect of indigenous footwear on the measured variables, compared to barefoot walking, is relatively small and consistent between substrates (even though subjects walked faster on the natural substrate). Walking barefoot, compared to shod walking yields higher impact accelerations, but the differences are small and only significant for the artificial substrate. The main rotations of the ankle joint are mostly similar between conditions. Only the shod condition shows a faster ankle rotation over the rapid eversion motion on the natural substrate. Maximal dorsiflexion in late stance differs between the footwear conditions on an artificial substrate, with the shod condition involving a less dorsiflexed ankle, and the plantar flexion at toe-off is more extreme when shod. Overall the activity pattern of the external foot muscles is similar. Discussion: The indigenous footwear studied (Kolhapuri) seems to alter foot biomechanics only in a subtle way. While offering some degree of protection, walking in this type of footwear resembles barefoot gait and this type of indigenous footwear might be considered " minimal".
Keywords
PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS, STYLE FLIP-FLOPS, ANATOMICAL EVIDENCE, BAREFOOT WALKING, LEG STIFFNESS, RUNNING SHOES, STRIKE TYPE, RUNNERS, ADULTS, SPEED

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Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

Chicago
Willems, Catherine, Gaetane Stassijns, Wim Cornelis, and Kristiaan D’Août. 2017. “Biomechanical Implications of Walking with Indigenous Footwear.” American Journal of Physical Anthropology 162 (4): 782–793.
APA
Willems, Catherine, Stassijns, G., Cornelis, W., & D’Août, K. (2017). Biomechanical implications of walking with indigenous footwear. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, 162(4), 782–793.
Vancouver
1.
Willems C, Stassijns G, Cornelis W, D’Août K. Biomechanical implications of walking with indigenous footwear. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY. 2017;162(4):782–93.
MLA
Willems, Catherine, Gaetane Stassijns, Wim Cornelis, et al. “Biomechanical Implications of Walking with Indigenous Footwear.” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 162.4 (2017): 782–793. Print.
@article{8512039,
  abstract     = {Objectives: This study investigates biomechanical implications of walking with indigenous {\textacutedbl}Kolhapuri{\textacutedbl} footwear compared to barefoot walking among a population of South Indians. 
Materials and methods: Ten healthy adults from South India walked barefoot and indigenously shod at voluntary speed on an artificial substrate. The experiment was repeated outside, on a natural substrate. Data were collected from (1) a heel-mounted 3D-accelerometer recording peak impact at heel contact, (2) an ankle-mounted 3D-goniometer (plantar/dorsiflexion and inversion/ eversion), and (3) sEMG electrodes at the m. tibialis anterior and the m. gastrocnemius medialis. 
Results: Data show that the effect of indigenous footwear on the measured variables, compared to barefoot walking, is relatively small and consistent between substrates (even though subjects walked faster on the natural substrate). Walking barefoot, compared to shod walking yields higher impact accelerations, but the differences are small and only significant for the artificial substrate. The main rotations of the ankle joint are mostly similar between conditions. Only the shod condition shows a faster ankle rotation over the rapid eversion motion on the natural substrate. Maximal dorsiflexion in late stance differs between the footwear conditions on an artificial substrate, with the shod condition involving a less dorsiflexed ankle, and the plantar flexion at toe-off is more extreme when shod. Overall the activity pattern of the external foot muscles is similar. 
Discussion: The indigenous footwear studied (Kolhapuri) seems to alter foot biomechanics only in a subtle way. While offering some degree of protection, walking in this type of footwear resembles barefoot gait and this type of indigenous footwear might be considered {\textacutedbl} minimal{\textacutedbl}.},
  author       = {Willems, Catherine and Stassijns, Gaetane and Cornelis, Wim and D'Ao{\^u}t, Kristiaan},
  issn         = {0002-9483},
  journal      = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY},
  keyword      = {PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS,STYLE FLIP-FLOPS,ANATOMICAL EVIDENCE,BAREFOOT WALKING,LEG STIFFNESS,RUNNING SHOES,STRIKE TYPE,RUNNERS,ADULTS,SPEED},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {782--793},
  title        = {Biomechanical implications of walking with indigenous footwear},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23169},
  volume       = {162},
  year         = {2017},
}

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