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Salmonella and Campylobacter in broilers at slaughter age : a possible source for carcasses contamination in Ecuador

(2017)
Author
Promoter
(UGent) , Maria Belén Cevallos and (UGent)
Organization
Abstract
Salmonella and Campylobacter are major foodborne pathogens worldwide and are especially prevalent in the poultry meat chain. Although poultry meat is a principal component of the diet in Ecuador, little is known about the presence of these pathogens in this food chain. The aim of this thesis was to collect data about Campylobacter and Salmonella in the broiler meat chain in Ecuador. To fulfill this objective, we assessed the prevalence and characterized these pathogens in broiler batches at slaughter age and studied the contamination dynamics during the slaughter of Campylobacter positive batches in commercial slaughterhouses. Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 focus on Salmonella and Campylobacter, for which samples from 388 and 379 broiler batches respectively were collected and analyzed by genotypic and phenotypic techniques. Salmonella prevalence at batch level was 16.0%. The most common serotype was S. Infantis (83.9%). S. Infantis isolates showed high resistance rates to 12 antibiotics ranging from 57.7% (kanamycin) up to 98.1% (nalidixic acid and sulfamethoxazole). The prevalence of Campylobacter at batch level was 64.1% and C. coli (68.7%) was the most common species. MIC values showed resistance rates above 67% for tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid. Genotypic characterization of both pathogens demonstrated that they are widely distributed in farms. In Chapter 3, the dynamics of Campylobacter contamination were studied in three slaughterhouses. The impact of evisceration, final washing and water chilling was evaluated by quantifying Campylobacter contamination. No significant differences were found between Campylobacter counts after evisceration and after final washing, denoting a lack of efficiency of this step. In all slaughterhouses, a significant reduction of Campylobacter counts was found after the chilling step. We reported that S. Infantis and C. coli were the most prevalent ones, which differs from what is reported in other Latin American countries. High resistance rates to antibiotics used in human medicine were found in these pathogens. This could be provoked by the extensive use of antimicrobials in poultry production and might pose a human health concern. The attribution of S. Infantis and C. coli to human infections need further research. Evaluation of Campylobacter counts at slaughterhouses showed that final washing and addition of chlorine in chilling water may be used to decrease Campylobacter numbers on carcasses. This thesis represents the first study on the epidemiology of Campylobacter and Salmonella in the poultry meat chain in Ecuador.
Keywords
Salmonella, Campylobacter, Ecuador, antimicrobial resistance, poultry

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Citation

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MLA
Vinueza Burgos, Christian Vinicio. Salmonella and Campylobacter in Broilers at Slaughter Age : A Possible Source for Carcasses Contamination in Ecuador. Ghent University. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 2017.
APA
Vinueza Burgos, C. V. (2017). Salmonella and Campylobacter in broilers at slaughter age : a possible source for carcasses contamination in Ecuador. Ghent University. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Merelbeke, Belgium.
Chicago author-date
Vinueza Burgos, Christian Vinicio. 2017. “Salmonella and Campylobacter in Broilers at Slaughter Age : A Possible Source for Carcasses Contamination in Ecuador.” Merelbeke, Belgium: Ghent University. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Vinueza Burgos, Christian Vinicio. 2017. “Salmonella and Campylobacter in Broilers at Slaughter Age : A Possible Source for Carcasses Contamination in Ecuador.” Merelbeke, Belgium: Ghent University. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine.
Vancouver
1.
Vinueza Burgos CV. Salmonella and Campylobacter in broilers at slaughter age : a possible source for carcasses contamination in Ecuador. [Merelbeke, Belgium]: Ghent University. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine; 2017.
IEEE
[1]
C. V. Vinueza Burgos, “Salmonella and Campylobacter in broilers at slaughter age : a possible source for carcasses contamination in Ecuador,” Ghent University. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Merelbeke, Belgium, 2017.
@phdthesis{8511111,
  abstract     = {{Salmonella and Campylobacter are major foodborne pathogens worldwide and are especially prevalent in the poultry meat chain. Although poultry meat is a principal component of the diet in Ecuador, little is known about the presence of these pathogens in this food chain. 
The aim of this thesis was to collect data about Campylobacter and Salmonella in the broiler meat chain in Ecuador. To fulfill this objective, we assessed the prevalence and characterized these pathogens in broiler batches at slaughter age and studied the contamination dynamics during the slaughter of Campylobacter positive batches in commercial slaughterhouses. 
Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 focus on Salmonella and Campylobacter, for which samples from 388 and 379 broiler batches respectively were collected and analyzed by genotypic and phenotypic techniques.
Salmonella prevalence at batch level was 16.0%. The most common serotype was S. Infantis (83.9%). S. Infantis isolates showed high resistance rates to 12 antibiotics ranging from 57.7% (kanamycin) up to 98.1% (nalidixic acid and sulfamethoxazole). The prevalence of Campylobacter at batch level was 64.1% and C. coli (68.7%) was the most common species. MIC values showed resistance rates above 67% for tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid. Genotypic characterization of both pathogens demonstrated that they are widely distributed in farms. 
In Chapter 3, the dynamics of Campylobacter contamination were studied in three slaughterhouses. The impact of evisceration, final washing and water chilling was evaluated by quantifying Campylobacter contamination. No significant differences were found between Campylobacter counts after evisceration and after final washing, denoting a lack of efficiency of this step. In all slaughterhouses, a significant reduction of Campylobacter counts was found after the chilling step.
We reported that S. Infantis and C. coli were the most prevalent ones, which differs from what is reported in other Latin American countries. High resistance rates to antibiotics used in human medicine were found in these pathogens. This could be provoked by the extensive use of antimicrobials in poultry production and might pose a human health concern. The attribution of S. Infantis and C. coli to human infections need further research. Evaluation of Campylobacter counts at slaughterhouses showed that final washing and addition of chlorine in chilling water may be used to decrease Campylobacter numbers on carcasses. 
This thesis represents the first study on the epidemiology of Campylobacter and Salmonella in the poultry meat chain in Ecuador.}},
  author       = {{Vinueza Burgos, Christian Vinicio}},
  keywords     = {{Salmonella,Campylobacter,Ecuador,antimicrobial resistance,poultry}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{VI, 152}},
  publisher    = {{Ghent University. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine}},
  school       = {{Ghent University}},
  title        = {{Salmonella and Campylobacter in broilers at slaughter age : a possible source for carcasses contamination in Ecuador}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.20687.48803}},
  year         = {{2017}},
}

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