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Determination of Porto-Azygos shunt anatomy in dogs by computed tomography angiography

(2016) VETERINARY SURGERY. 45(8). p.1005-1012
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Organization
Abstract
Objective: To describe the morphology of porto-azygos shunts in a large series of dogs using computed tomography (CT) angiography. Study Design: Retrospective study. Animals: Dogs (n=36) with porto-azygos shunts. Methods: CT angiography was performed in dogs subsequently proven to have a porto-azygos shunt. The origin and insertion of the shunts were assessed on native images. The diameter of the porto-azygos shunt and the portal vein, cranial and caudal to the shunt origin, were measured. The porto-azygos shunt anatomy was studied on three-dimensional images. Results: All porto-azygos shunts originated either in the left gastric vein (33 left gastro-azygos shunts) or the right gastric vein (3 right gastro-azygos shunts). Two left gastro-azygos shunts had concurrent caval-azygos continuation and 2 right gastro-azygos shunts had a caudal splenic loop. All shunts crossed the diaphragm through the esophageal hiatus. The majority of porto-azygos shunts (32) followed a straight pathway after traversing the diaphragm, although 4 shunts followed a tortuous route. All shunts terminated in the thoracic part of the azygos vein, perpendicular to the aorta. The shunt diameter at insertion was only 3 mm on average. The insertion site was consistently the narrowest part of the shunt. Conclusion: CT angiography was well suited to provide anatomic details of porto-azygos shunts and comprehensively documented that all porto-azygos shunts had a thoracic terminus, after crossing the diaphragm through the esophageal hiatus. Different shunt types existed with minor variations.
Keywords
CONGENITAL PORTOSYSTEMIC SHUNTS, CAUDAL VENA-CAVA, ULTRASONOGRAPHIC, DIAGNOSIS, CATS, MORPHOLOGY, VEIN, CONSTRICTORS, CONTINUATION

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

Chicago
Or, Matan, Kumiko Ishigaki, Hilde De Rooster, Kenji Kutara, and Kazushi Asano. 2016. “Determination of Porto-Azygos Shunt Anatomy in Dogs by Computed Tomography Angiography.” Veterinary Surgery 45 (8): 1005–1012.
APA
Or, M., Ishigaki, K., De Rooster, H., Kutara, K., & Asano, K. (2016). Determination of Porto-Azygos shunt anatomy in dogs by computed tomography angiography. VETERINARY SURGERY, 45(8), 1005–1012.
Vancouver
1.
Or M, Ishigaki K, De Rooster H, Kutara K, Asano K. Determination of Porto-Azygos shunt anatomy in dogs by computed tomography angiography. VETERINARY SURGERY. 2016;45(8):1005–12.
MLA
Or, Matan, Kumiko Ishigaki, Hilde De Rooster, et al. “Determination of Porto-Azygos Shunt Anatomy in Dogs by Computed Tomography Angiography.” VETERINARY SURGERY 45.8 (2016): 1005–1012. Print.
@article{8511051,
  abstract     = {Objective: To describe the morphology of porto-azygos shunts in a large series of dogs using computed tomography (CT) angiography. 
Study Design: Retrospective study. 
Animals: Dogs (n=36) with porto-azygos shunts. 
Methods: CT angiography was performed in dogs subsequently proven to have a porto-azygos shunt. The origin and insertion of the shunts were assessed on native images. The diameter of the porto-azygos shunt and the portal vein, cranial and caudal to the shunt origin, were measured. The porto-azygos shunt anatomy was studied on three-dimensional images. 
Results: All porto-azygos shunts originated either in the left gastric vein (33 left gastro-azygos shunts) or the right gastric vein (3 right gastro-azygos shunts). Two left gastro-azygos shunts had concurrent caval-azygos continuation and 2 right gastro-azygos shunts had a caudal splenic loop. All shunts crossed the diaphragm through the esophageal hiatus. The majority of porto-azygos shunts (32) followed a straight pathway after traversing the diaphragm, although 4 shunts followed a tortuous route. All shunts terminated in the thoracic part of the azygos vein, perpendicular to the aorta. The shunt diameter at insertion was only 3 mm on average. The insertion site was consistently the narrowest part of the shunt. 
Conclusion: CT angiography was well suited to provide anatomic details of porto-azygos shunts and comprehensively documented that all porto-azygos shunts had a thoracic terminus, after crossing the diaphragm through the esophageal hiatus. Different shunt types existed with minor variations.},
  author       = {Or, Matan and Ishigaki, Kumiko and De Rooster, Hilde and Kutara, Kenji and Asano, Kazushi},
  issn         = {0161-3499},
  journal      = {VETERINARY SURGERY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {8},
  pages        = {1005--1012},
  title        = {Determination of Porto-Azygos shunt anatomy in dogs by computed tomography angiography},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vsu.12553},
  volume       = {45},
  year         = {2016},
}

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