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Does comorbid anxiety counteract emotion recognition deficits in conduct disorder?

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Abstract
Background: Previous research has reported altered emotion recognition in both conduct disorder (CD) and anxiety disorders (ADs) - but these effects appear to be of different kinds. Adolescents with CD often show a generalised pattern of deficits, while those with ADs show hypersensitivity to specific negative emotions. Although these conditions often cooccur, little is known regarding emotion recognition performance in comorbid CD+ADs. Here, we test the hypothesis that in the comorbid case, anxiety-related emotion hypersensitivity counteracts the emotion recognition deficits typically observed in CD. Method: We compared facial emotion recognition across four groups of adolescents aged 12-18 years: those with CD alone (n = 28), ADs alone (n = 23), cooccurring CD+ADs (n = 20) and typically developing controls (n = 28). The emotion recognition task we used systematically manipulated the emotional intensity of facial expressions as well as fixation location (eye, nose or mouth region). Results: Conduct disorder was associated with a generalised impairment in emotion recognition; however, this may have been modulated by group differences in IQ. AD was associated with increased sensitivity to low-intensity happiness, disgust and sadness. In general, the comorbid CD+ADs group performed similarly to typically developing controls. Conclusions: Although CD alone was associated with emotion recognition impairments, ADs and comorbid CD+ADs were associated with normal or enhanced emotion recognition performance. The presence of comorbid ADs appeared to counteract the effects of CD, suggesting a potentially protective role, although future research should examine the contribution of IQ and gender to these effects.
Keywords
FACIAL EXPRESSION RECOGNITION, OPPOSITIONAL DEFIANT DISORDER, ANTISOCIAL-BEHAVIOR, VIOLENT OFFENDERS, SOCIAL IMPAIRMENT, EARLY, ADOLESCENCE, CHILDREN, CHILDHOOD, DELINQUENCY, SYMPTOMS, Conduct disorder, anxiety disorder, callous-unemotional traits, comorbidity, emotion recognition, response biases, social information, processing

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Chicago
Short, Roxanna ML, Edmund Barke, Wendy J Adams, and Graeme Fairchild. 2016. “Does Comorbid Anxiety Counteract Emotion Recognition Deficits in Conduct Disorder?” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 57 (8): 917–926.
APA
Short, R. M., Barke, E., Adams, W. J., & Fairchild, G. (2016). Does comorbid anxiety counteract emotion recognition deficits in conduct disorder? JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY, 57(8), 917–926.
Vancouver
1.
Short RM, Barke E, Adams WJ, Fairchild G. Does comorbid anxiety counteract emotion recognition deficits in conduct disorder? JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY. Hoboken: Wiley-blackwell; 2016;57(8):917–26.
MLA
Short, Roxanna ML et al. “Does Comorbid Anxiety Counteract Emotion Recognition Deficits in Conduct Disorder?” JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY 57.8 (2016): 917–926. Print.
@article{8509978,
  abstract     = {Background: Previous research has reported altered emotion recognition in both conduct disorder (CD) and anxiety disorders (ADs) - but these effects appear to be of different kinds. Adolescents with CD often show a generalised pattern of deficits, while those with ADs show hypersensitivity to specific negative emotions. Although these conditions often cooccur, little is known regarding emotion recognition performance in comorbid CD+ADs. Here, we test the hypothesis that in the comorbid case, anxiety-related emotion hypersensitivity counteracts the emotion recognition deficits typically observed in CD. Method: We compared facial emotion recognition across four groups of adolescents aged 12-18 years: those with CD alone (n = 28), ADs alone (n = 23), cooccurring CD+ADs (n = 20) and typically developing controls (n = 28). The emotion recognition task we used systematically manipulated the emotional intensity of facial expressions as well as fixation location (eye, nose or mouth region). Results: Conduct disorder was associated with a generalised impairment in emotion recognition; however, this may have been modulated by group differences in IQ. AD was associated with increased sensitivity to low-intensity happiness, disgust and sadness. In general, the comorbid CD+ADs group performed similarly to typically developing controls. Conclusions: Although CD alone was associated with emotion recognition impairments, ADs and comorbid CD+ADs were associated with normal or enhanced emotion recognition performance. The presence of comorbid ADs appeared to counteract the effects of CD, suggesting a potentially protective role, although future research should examine the contribution of IQ and gender to these effects.},
  author       = {Short, Roxanna ML and Barke, Edmund and Adams, Wendy J and Fairchild, Graeme},
  issn         = {0021-9630},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY},
  keywords     = {FACIAL EXPRESSION RECOGNITION,OPPOSITIONAL DEFIANT DISORDER,ANTISOCIAL-BEHAVIOR,VIOLENT OFFENDERS,SOCIAL IMPAIRMENT,EARLY,ADOLESCENCE,CHILDREN,CHILDHOOD,DELINQUENCY,SYMPTOMS,Conduct disorder,anxiety disorder,callous-unemotional traits,comorbidity,emotion recognition,response biases,social information,processing},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {8},
  pages        = {917--926},
  publisher    = {Wiley-blackwell},
  title        = {Does comorbid anxiety counteract emotion recognition deficits in conduct disorder?},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12544},
  volume       = {57},
  year         = {2016},
}

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