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The twofold diagnosis of personality disorder : how do personality dysfunction and pathological traits increment each other at successive levels of the trait hierarchy?

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Abstract
Besides the categorical classification of personality disorders (PDs) in Section II of the DSM-5 (American Psychiatric Association, 2013), which has been transferred as such from DSM-IV, Section III provides an alternative model to stimulate further research on the dimensional conceptualization of PDs. In this alternative system, a PD diagnosis is based on 2 essential criteria: impaired personality functioning and the presence of pathological traits. One topic that warrants further research concerns the incremental validity of these 2 components. The current study addresses this issue in a mixed community-patient sample (N = 233). First, Goldberg's (2006) "bass-ackwards" method was used to examine the hierarchical structure of pathological traits as measured by the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology (DAPP-BQ; Livesley & Jackson, 2009). We then extracted a single higher order factor from the Severity Index of Personality Problems (SIPP-118; Verheul et al., 2008) to derive 1 coherent indicator of personality dysfunction. Correlation and hierarchical regression analyses were used to determine the incremental validity of the dysfunction factor versus the trait components at succeeding levels of the DAPP-BQ hierarchy. The results only partially supported the 2-component PD diagnosis, as traits and dysfunction appeared to have only limited incremental validity. Moreover, lower order traits were generally unable to outperform higher order components in predicting specific DSM-IV PDs. Implications for the conceptualization and assessment of personality pathology are discussed.
Keywords
5-FACTOR MODEL, DIMENSIONAL MODEL, DAPP-BQ, CLINICAL UTILITY, DSM-V, CLASSIFICATION, PSYCHOPATHOLOGY, ARTICULATION, FRAMEWORK, SEVERITY

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MLA
Bastiaansen, Leen et al. “The Twofold Diagnosis of Personality Disorder : How Do Personality Dysfunction and Pathological Traits Increment Each Other at Successive Levels of the Trait Hierarchy?” PERSONALITY DISORDERS-THEORY RESEARCH AND TREATMENT 7.3 (2016): 280–292. Print.
APA
Bastiaansen, L., Hopwood, C. J., Van den Broeck, J., Rossi, G., Schotte, C., & De Fruyt, F. (2016). The twofold diagnosis of personality disorder : how do personality dysfunction and pathological traits increment each other at successive levels of the trait hierarchy? PERSONALITY DISORDERS-THEORY RESEARCH AND TREATMENT, 7(3), 280–292.
Chicago author-date
Bastiaansen, Leen, Christopher J Hopwood, Joke Van den Broeck, Gina Rossi, Christiaan Schotte, and Filip De Fruyt. 2016. “The Twofold Diagnosis of Personality Disorder : How Do Personality Dysfunction and Pathological Traits Increment Each Other at Successive Levels of the Trait Hierarchy?” Personality Disorders-theory Research and Treatment 7 (3): 280–292.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Bastiaansen, Leen, Christopher J Hopwood, Joke Van den Broeck, Gina Rossi, Christiaan Schotte, and Filip De Fruyt. 2016. “The Twofold Diagnosis of Personality Disorder : How Do Personality Dysfunction and Pathological Traits Increment Each Other at Successive Levels of the Trait Hierarchy?” Personality Disorders-theory Research and Treatment 7 (3): 280–292.
Vancouver
1.
Bastiaansen L, Hopwood CJ, Van den Broeck J, Rossi G, Schotte C, De Fruyt F. The twofold diagnosis of personality disorder : how do personality dysfunction and pathological traits increment each other at successive levels of the trait hierarchy? PERSONALITY DISORDERS-THEORY RESEARCH AND TREATMENT. American Psychological Association (APA); 2016;7(3):280–92.
IEEE
[1]
L. Bastiaansen, C. J. Hopwood, J. Van den Broeck, G. Rossi, C. Schotte, and F. De Fruyt, “The twofold diagnosis of personality disorder : how do personality dysfunction and pathological traits increment each other at successive levels of the trait hierarchy?,” PERSONALITY DISORDERS-THEORY RESEARCH AND TREATMENT, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 280–292, 2016.
@article{8509949,
  abstract     = {Besides the categorical classification of personality disorders (PDs) in Section II of the DSM-5 (American Psychiatric Association, 2013), which has been transferred as such from DSM-IV, Section III provides an alternative model to stimulate further research on the dimensional conceptualization of PDs. In this alternative system, a PD diagnosis is based on 2 essential criteria: impaired personality functioning and the presence of pathological traits. One topic that warrants further research concerns the incremental validity of these 2 components. The current study addresses this issue in a mixed community-patient sample (N = 233). First, Goldberg's (2006) "bass-ackwards" method was used to examine the hierarchical structure of pathological traits as measured by the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology (DAPP-BQ; Livesley & Jackson, 2009). We then extracted a single higher order factor from the Severity Index of Personality Problems (SIPP-118; Verheul et al., 2008) to derive 1 coherent indicator of personality dysfunction. Correlation and hierarchical regression analyses were used to determine the incremental validity of the dysfunction factor versus the trait components at succeeding levels of the DAPP-BQ hierarchy. The results only partially supported the 2-component PD diagnosis, as traits and dysfunction appeared to have only limited incremental validity. Moreover, lower order traits were generally unable to outperform higher order components in predicting specific DSM-IV PDs. Implications for the conceptualization and assessment of personality pathology are discussed.},
  author       = {Bastiaansen, Leen and Hopwood, Christopher J and Van den Broeck, Joke and Rossi, Gina and Schotte, Christiaan and De Fruyt, Filip},
  issn         = {1949-2723},
  journal      = {PERSONALITY DISORDERS-THEORY RESEARCH AND TREATMENT},
  keywords     = {5-FACTOR MODEL,DIMENSIONAL MODEL,DAPP-BQ,CLINICAL UTILITY,DSM-V,CLASSIFICATION,PSYCHOPATHOLOGY,ARTICULATION,FRAMEWORK,SEVERITY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {280--292},
  publisher    = {American Psychological Association (APA)},
  title        = {The twofold diagnosis of personality disorder : how do personality dysfunction and pathological traits increment each other at successive levels of the trait hierarchy?},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/per0000149},
  volume       = {7},
  year         = {2016},
}

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