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Body image in young gender dysphoric adults : a European multi-center study

(2016) ARCHIVES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR. 45(3). p.559-574
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Abstract
The alteration of sex-specific body features and the establishment of a satisfactory body image are known to be particularly relevant for individuals with Gender Dysphoria (GD). The aim of the study was to first develop new scales and examine the psychometric properties of the Hamburg Body Drawing Scale (Appelt & Strau 1988). For the second part of this study, the satisfaction with different body features in young GD adults before cross-sex treatment were compared to female and male controls. Data collection took place within the context of the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence (ENIGI) including 135 female-to-male (FtMs) and 115 male-to-female (MtFs) young GD adults and 235 female and 379 male age-adjusted controls. The five female and six male body feature subscales revealed good internal consistency. The ENIGI sample reported less satisfaction with overall appearance (d = 0.30) and with all of their body features than controls, but no subgroup differences for sexual orientation (FtM and MtF) and Age of Onset (FtM) were found. Body dissatisfaction was higher with regard to sex-specific body features (largest effect sizes of d = 3.21 for Genitalia in FtMs and d = 2.85 for Androgen-responsive features and genitalia in MtFs) than with those that appeared less related to the natal sex (d = 0.64 for Facial features in FtMs and d = 0.59 for Body shape in MtFs). Not only medical body modifying interventions, but also psychosocial guidance with regard to body image might be helpful for GD individuals before transitioning.
Keywords
Transsexualism, gender dysphoria, gender identity disorder, gender incongruence, body image, body satisfaction, MALE-TO-FEMALE, SEX REASSIGNMENT SURGERY, AGE-OF-ONSET, IDENTITY DISORDER, EATING-DISORDER, CHECKING QUESTIONNAIRE, MALE-TRANSSEXUALS, ANOREXIA-NERVOSA, GERMAN VERSION, LIFE-SPAN

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

MLA
Becker, Inga et al. “Body Image in Young Gender Dysphoric Adults : a European Multi-center Study.” ARCHIVES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR 45.3 (2016): 559–574. Print.
APA
Becker, I., Nieder, T. O., Cerwenka, S., Briken, P., Kreukels, B. P., Cohen-Kettenis, P. T., DE CUYPERE, G., et al. (2016). Body image in young gender dysphoric adults : a European multi-center study. ARCHIVES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR, 45(3), 559–574.
Chicago author-date
Becker, Inga, Timo O Nieder, Susanne Cerwenka, Peer Briken, Baudewijntje PC Kreukels, Peggy T Cohen-Kettenis, GRETA DE CUYPERE, Ira R Hebold Haraldsen, and Hertha Richter-Appelt. 2016. “Body Image in Young Gender Dysphoric Adults : a European Multi-center Study.” Archives of Sexual Behavior 45 (3): 559–574.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Becker, Inga, Timo O Nieder, Susanne Cerwenka, Peer Briken, Baudewijntje PC Kreukels, Peggy T Cohen-Kettenis, GRETA DE CUYPERE, Ira R Hebold Haraldsen, and Hertha Richter-Appelt. 2016. “Body Image in Young Gender Dysphoric Adults : a European Multi-center Study.” Archives of Sexual Behavior 45 (3): 559–574.
Vancouver
1.
Becker I, Nieder TO, Cerwenka S, Briken P, Kreukels BP, Cohen-Kettenis PT, et al. Body image in young gender dysphoric adults : a European multi-center study. ARCHIVES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR. 2016;45(3):559–74.
IEEE
[1]
I. Becker et al., “Body image in young gender dysphoric adults : a European multi-center study,” ARCHIVES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 559–574, 2016.
@article{8509758,
  abstract     = {The alteration of sex-specific body features and the establishment of a satisfactory body image are known to be particularly relevant for individuals with Gender Dysphoria (GD). The aim of the study was to first develop new scales and examine the psychometric properties of the Hamburg Body Drawing Scale (Appelt & Strau 1988). For the second part of this study, the satisfaction with different body features in young GD adults before cross-sex treatment were compared to female and male controls. Data collection took place within the context of the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence (ENIGI) including 135 female-to-male (FtMs) and 115 male-to-female (MtFs) young GD adults and 235 female and 379 male age-adjusted controls. The five female and six male body feature subscales revealed good internal consistency. The ENIGI sample reported less satisfaction with overall appearance (d = 0.30) and with all of their body features than controls, but no subgroup differences for sexual orientation (FtM and MtF) and Age of Onset (FtM) were found. Body dissatisfaction was higher with regard to sex-specific body features (largest effect sizes of d = 3.21 for Genitalia in FtMs and d = 2.85 for Androgen-responsive features and genitalia in MtFs) than with those that appeared less related to the natal sex (d = 0.64 for Facial features in FtMs and d = 0.59 for Body shape in MtFs). Not only medical body modifying interventions, but also psychosocial guidance with regard to body image might be helpful for GD individuals before transitioning.},
  author       = {Becker, Inga and Nieder, Timo O and Cerwenka, Susanne and Briken, Peer and Kreukels, Baudewijntje PC and Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T and DE CUYPERE, GRETA and Hebold Haraldsen, Ira R and Richter-Appelt, Hertha},
  issn         = {0004-0002},
  journal      = {ARCHIVES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR},
  keywords     = {Transsexualism,gender dysphoria,gender identity disorder,gender incongruence,body image,body satisfaction,MALE-TO-FEMALE,SEX REASSIGNMENT SURGERY,AGE-OF-ONSET,IDENTITY DISORDER,EATING-DISORDER,CHECKING QUESTIONNAIRE,MALE-TRANSSEXUALS,ANOREXIA-NERVOSA,GERMAN VERSION,LIFE-SPAN},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {559--574},
  title        = {Body image in young gender dysphoric adults : a European multi-center study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10508-015-0527-z},
  volume       = {45},
  year         = {2016},
}

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