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Abstract
Objective: In both children and adults, psychiatric illness is associated with structural brain alterations, particularly in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, most studies compare gray matter volume (GMV) in healthy volunteers (HVs) to one psychiatric group. We compared GMV among youth with anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder (BD), disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and HVs. Method: 3-Tesla T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired in 184 youths (39 anxious, 20 BD, 52 DMDD, 20 ADHD, and 53 HV). Voxel-based morphometry analyses were conducted. One-way analysis of variance tested GMV differences with whole-brain familywise error (p < .05) correction; secondary, exploratory whole-brain analyses used a threshold of p < .001, >= 200 voxels. Given recent frameworks advocating dimensional approaches in psychopathology research, we also tested GMV associations with continuous anxiety, irritability, and inattention symptoms. Results: Specificity emerged in the left dorsolateral PFC (d1PFC), which differed among youth with BD, anxiety, and HVs; GMV was increased in youth with anxiety, but decreased in BD, relative to HVs. Secondary analyses revealed BD-specific GMV decreases in the right lateral PFC, right d1PFC, and dorsomedial PFC, and also anxiety specific GMV increases in the left d1PFC, right ventrolateral PFC, frontal pole, and right parahippocampal gyrus/lingual gyrus. Both BD and DMDD showed decreased GMV relative to HVs in the right d1PFC/superior frontal gyrus. GMV was not associated with dimensional measures of anxiety, irritability, or ADHD symptoms. Conclusion: Both disorder-specific and shared GMV differences manifest in pediatric psychopathology. Some differences were specific to anxiety disorders, others specific to BD, and others shared between BD and DMDD. Further developmental research might map commonalities and differences of structure and function in diverse pediatric psychopathologies.
Keywords
SEVERE MOOD DYSREGULATION, VOXEL-BASED MORPHOMETRY, GRAY-MATTER VOLUME, GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER, PEDIATRIC BIPOLAR DISORDER, MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER, CORTICAL THICKNESS, HEALTHY-CHILDREN, RATING-SCALE, SEX-DIFFERENCES

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MLA
Gold, Andrea L et al. “Comparing Brain Morphometry Across Multiple Childhood Psychiatric Disorders.” JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY 55.12 (2016): 1027–1037. Print.
APA
Gold, A. L., Brotman, M. A., Adleman, N. E., Lever, S. N., Steuber, E. R., Fromm, S. J., Müller, S., et al. (2016). Comparing brain morphometry across multiple childhood psychiatric disorders. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY, 55(12), 1027–1037.
Chicago author-date
Gold, Andrea L, Melissa A Brotman, Nancy E Adleman, Sara N Lever, Elizabeth R Steuber, Stephen J Fromm, Sven Müller, Daniel S Pine, and Ellen Leibenluft. 2016. “Comparing Brain Morphometry Across Multiple Childhood Psychiatric Disorders.” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 55 (12): 1027–1037.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Gold, Andrea L, Melissa A Brotman, Nancy E Adleman, Sara N Lever, Elizabeth R Steuber, Stephen J Fromm, Sven Müller, Daniel S Pine, and Ellen Leibenluft. 2016. “Comparing Brain Morphometry Across Multiple Childhood Psychiatric Disorders.” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 55 (12): 1027–1037.
Vancouver
1.
Gold AL, Brotman MA, Adleman NE, Lever SN, Steuber ER, Fromm SJ, et al. Comparing brain morphometry across multiple childhood psychiatric disorders. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY. Elsevier BV; 2016;55(12):1027–37.
IEEE
[1]
A. L. Gold et al., “Comparing brain morphometry across multiple childhood psychiatric disorders,” JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY, vol. 55, no. 12, pp. 1027–1037, 2016.
@article{8508974,
  abstract     = {{Objective: In both children and adults, psychiatric illness is associated with structural brain alterations, particularly in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, most studies compare gray matter volume (GMV) in healthy volunteers (HVs) to one psychiatric group. We compared GMV among youth with anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder (BD), disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and HVs. 

Method: 3-Tesla T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired in 184 youths (39 anxious, 20 BD, 52 DMDD, 20 ADHD, and 53 HV). Voxel-based morphometry analyses were conducted. One-way analysis of variance tested GMV differences with whole-brain familywise error (p < .05) correction; secondary, exploratory whole-brain analyses used a threshold of p < .001, >= 200 voxels. Given recent frameworks advocating dimensional approaches in psychopathology research, we also tested GMV associations with continuous anxiety, irritability, and inattention symptoms. 

Results: Specificity emerged in the left dorsolateral PFC (d1PFC), which differed among youth with BD, anxiety, and HVs; GMV was increased in youth with anxiety, but decreased in BD, relative to HVs. Secondary analyses revealed BD-specific GMV decreases in the right lateral PFC, right d1PFC, and dorsomedial PFC, and also anxiety specific GMV increases in the left d1PFC, right ventrolateral PFC, frontal pole, and right parahippocampal gyrus/lingual gyrus. Both BD and DMDD showed decreased GMV relative to HVs in the right d1PFC/superior frontal gyrus. GMV was not associated with dimensional measures of anxiety, irritability, or ADHD symptoms. 

Conclusion: Both disorder-specific and shared GMV differences manifest in pediatric psychopathology. Some differences were specific to anxiety disorders, others specific to BD, and others shared between BD and DMDD. Further developmental research might map commonalities and differences of structure and function in diverse pediatric psychopathologies.}},
  author       = {{Gold, Andrea L and Brotman, Melissa A and Adleman, Nancy E and Lever, Sara N and Steuber, Elizabeth R and Fromm, Stephen J and Müller, Sven and Pine, Daniel S and Leibenluft, Ellen}},
  issn         = {{0890-8567}},
  journal      = {{JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY}},
  keywords     = {{SEVERE MOOD DYSREGULATION,VOXEL-BASED MORPHOMETRY,GRAY-MATTER VOLUME,GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER,PEDIATRIC BIPOLAR DISORDER,MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER,CORTICAL THICKNESS,HEALTHY-CHILDREN,RATING-SCALE,SEX-DIFFERENCES}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{12}},
  pages        = {{1027--1037}},
  publisher    = {{Elsevier BV}},
  title        = {{Comparing brain morphometry across multiple childhood psychiatric disorders}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2016.08.008}},
  volume       = {{55}},
  year         = {{2016}},
}

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