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Reduced default mode connectivity in adolescents with conduct disorder

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Organization
Abstract
Objective: Conduct disorder (CD) is characterized by impulsive, aggressive, and antisocial behaviors that might be related to deficits in empathy and moral reasoning. The brain's default mode network (DMN) has been implicated in self-referential cognitive processes of this kind. Method: This study examined connectivity between key nodes of the DMN in 29 adolescent boys with CD and 29 age- and sex-matched typically developing adolescent boys. The authors ensured that group differences in DMN connectivity were not explained by comorbidity with other disorders by systematically controlling for the effects of substance use disorders (SUDs), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, psychopathic traits, and other common mental health problems. Results: Only after adjusting for co-occurring ADHD symptoms, the group with CD showed hypoconnectivity between core DMN regions compared with typically developing controls. ADHD symptoms were associated with DMN hyperconnectivity. There was no effect of psychopathic traits on DMN connectivity in the group with CD, and the key results were unchanged when controlling for SUDs and other common mental health problems. Conclusion: Future research should directly investigate the possibility that the aberrant DMN connectivity observed in the present study contributes to CD-related deficits in empathy and moral reasoning and examine self-referential cognitive processes in CD more generally.
Keywords
ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER, DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY, DISORDER, OPPOSITIONAL DEFIANT DISORDER, STATE FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY, NETWORK CONNECTIVITY, ANTISOCIAL-BEHAVIOR, STRUCTURAL CONNECTIVITY, PSYCHIATRIC-DISORDERS, MORAL JUDGMENT, EARLY-ONSET, conduct disorder, ADHD, psychopathic traits, default mode network, functional connectivity

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MLA
Broulidakis, M. John et al. “Reduced Default Mode Connectivity in Adolescents with Conduct Disorder.” JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY 55.9 (2016): 800–808. Print.
APA
Broulidakis, M. J., Fairchild, G., Sully, K., Blumensath, T., Darekar, A., & Barke, E. (2016). Reduced default mode connectivity in adolescents with conduct disorder. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY, 55(9), 800–808.
Chicago author-date
Broulidakis, M. John, Graeme Fairchild, Kate Sully, Thomas Blumensath, Angela Darekar, and Edmund Barke. 2016. “Reduced Default Mode Connectivity in Adolescents with Conduct Disorder.” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 55 (9): 800–808.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Broulidakis, M. John, Graeme Fairchild, Kate Sully, Thomas Blumensath, Angela Darekar, and Edmund Barke. 2016. “Reduced Default Mode Connectivity in Adolescents with Conduct Disorder.” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 55 (9): 800–808.
Vancouver
1.
Broulidakis MJ, Fairchild G, Sully K, Blumensath T, Darekar A, Barke E. Reduced default mode connectivity in adolescents with conduct disorder. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY. New york: Elsevier Science Inc; 2016;55(9):800–8.
IEEE
[1]
M. J. Broulidakis, G. Fairchild, K. Sully, T. Blumensath, A. Darekar, and E. Barke, “Reduced default mode connectivity in adolescents with conduct disorder,” JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 800–808, 2016.
@article{8508901,
  abstract     = {Objective: Conduct disorder (CD) is characterized by impulsive, aggressive, and antisocial behaviors that might be related to deficits in empathy and moral reasoning. The brain's default mode network (DMN) has been implicated in self-referential cognitive processes of this kind. Method: This study examined connectivity between key nodes of the DMN in 29 adolescent boys with CD and 29 age- and sex-matched typically developing adolescent boys. The authors ensured that group differences in DMN connectivity were not explained by comorbidity with other disorders by systematically controlling for the effects of substance use disorders (SUDs), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, psychopathic traits, and other common mental health problems. Results: Only after adjusting for co-occurring ADHD symptoms, the group with CD showed hypoconnectivity between core DMN regions compared with typically developing controls. ADHD symptoms were associated with DMN hyperconnectivity. There was no effect of psychopathic traits on DMN connectivity in the group with CD, and the key results were unchanged when controlling for SUDs and other common mental health problems. Conclusion: Future research should directly investigate the possibility that the aberrant DMN connectivity observed in the present study contributes to CD-related deficits in empathy and moral reasoning and examine self-referential cognitive processes in CD more generally.},
  author       = {Broulidakis, M. John and Fairchild, Graeme and Sully, Kate and Blumensath, Thomas and Darekar, Angela and Barke, Edmund},
  issn         = {0890-8567},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY},
  keywords     = {ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER,DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY,DISORDER,OPPOSITIONAL DEFIANT DISORDER,STATE FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY,NETWORK CONNECTIVITY,ANTISOCIAL-BEHAVIOR,STRUCTURAL CONNECTIVITY,PSYCHIATRIC-DISORDERS,MORAL JUDGMENT,EARLY-ONSET,conduct disorder,ADHD,psychopathic traits,default mode network,functional connectivity},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {9},
  pages        = {800--808},
  publisher    = {Elsevier Science Inc},
  title        = {Reduced default mode connectivity in adolescents with conduct disorder},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2016.05.021},
  volume       = {55},
  year         = {2016},
}

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