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Epidemiological evidence for metabolic programming in dairy cattle

Geert Opsomer (UGent) , Mieke Van Eetvelde (UGent) , Md. Mostofa Kamal (UGent) and Ann Van Soom (UGent)
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Abstract
In humans, there is evidence that metabolic diseases occurring in later life arise in utero as a result of programming of key endocrine systems during suboptimal intrauterine conditions. The process by which prenatal insults lead to permanent changes in tissue structure and function, and finally to low birthweight (BW), is known as developmental programming. Poor nutrition, environmental temperature, oxygen availability and overnutrition all have been shown to significantly affect intrauterine development. Because the placenta is the organ for communication between mother and fetus, placental insufficiency invariably affects embryonic development and health in later life. In order to optimise their income, dairy farmers inseminate their nulliparous heifers at adolescent age, and subsequently strive for calving intervals not longer than 380 days. Hence, heifers are still growing and multiparous animals are still yielding large quantities of milk while pregnant. Dairy cows heavily selected for milk yield have specific endocrinological characteristics, like low peripheral insulin levels and low peripheral insulin sensitivity, both contributing to safeguard glucose for milk production. The reverse of this advanced selection is the high incidence of a wide range of metabolic diseases. Evidence from epidemiological studies is now available demonstrating that milk yield during gestation and environmental factors, such as season of pregnancy and parturition, affect both the size and the intermediary metabolism of the neonatal calf. The latter suggests that further optimisation in terms of production, reproduction, general health and longevity in the dairy sector may be feasible by taking into account environmental factors occurring during pregnancy.
Keywords
developmental origins of health and disease, EARLY GESTATIONAL UNDERNUTRITION, THRIFTY PHENOTYPE HYPOTHESIS, MILK-PRODUCTION, BIRTH-WEIGHT, REPRODUCTIVE-PERFORMANCE, ENVIRONMENTAL-FACTORS, REPLACEMENT HEIFERS, REDUCED FERTILITY, HOLSTEIN CALVES, REARING PERIOD

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Chicago
Opsomer, Geert, Mieke Van Eetvelde, Md. Mostofa Kamal, and Ann Van Soom. 2017. “Epidemiological Evidence for Metabolic Programming in Dairy Cattle.” Reproduction Fertility and Development 29 (1): 52–57.
APA
Opsomer, G., Van Eetvelde, M., Kamal, M. M., & Van Soom, A. (2017). Epidemiological evidence for metabolic programming in dairy cattle. REPRODUCTION FERTILITY AND DEVELOPMENT, 29(1), 52–57. Presented at the Annual conference of the International Embryo Technology Society (IETS).
Vancouver
1.
Opsomer G, Van Eetvelde M, Kamal MM, Van Soom A. Epidemiological evidence for metabolic programming in dairy cattle. REPRODUCTION FERTILITY AND DEVELOPMENT. 2017;29(1):52–7.
MLA
Opsomer, Geert, Mieke Van Eetvelde, Md. Mostofa Kamal, et al. “Epidemiological Evidence for Metabolic Programming in Dairy Cattle.” REPRODUCTION FERTILITY AND DEVELOPMENT 29.1 (2017): 52–57. Print.
@article{8508744,
  abstract     = {In humans, there is evidence that metabolic diseases occurring in later life arise in utero as a result of programming of key endocrine systems during suboptimal intrauterine conditions. The process by which prenatal insults lead to permanent changes in tissue structure and function, and finally to low birthweight (BW), is known as developmental programming. Poor nutrition, environmental temperature, oxygen availability and overnutrition all have been shown to significantly affect intrauterine development. Because the placenta is the organ for communication between mother and fetus, placental insufficiency invariably affects embryonic development and health in later life. In order to optimise their income, dairy farmers inseminate their nulliparous heifers at adolescent age, and subsequently strive for calving intervals not longer than 380 days. Hence, heifers are still growing and multiparous animals are still yielding large quantities of milk while pregnant. Dairy cows heavily selected for milk yield have specific endocrinological characteristics, like low peripheral insulin levels and low peripheral insulin sensitivity, both contributing to safeguard glucose for milk production. The reverse of this advanced selection is the high incidence of a wide range of metabolic diseases. Evidence from epidemiological studies is now available demonstrating that milk yield during gestation and environmental factors, such as season of pregnancy and parturition, affect both the size and the intermediary metabolism of the neonatal calf. The latter suggests that further optimisation in terms of production, reproduction, general health and longevity in the dairy sector may be feasible by taking into account environmental factors occurring during pregnancy.},
  author       = {Opsomer, Geert and Van Eetvelde, Mieke and Kamal, Md. Mostofa and Van Soom, Ann},
  issn         = {1031-3613},
  journal      = {REPRODUCTION FERTILITY AND DEVELOPMENT},
  keyword      = {developmental origins of health and disease,EARLY GESTATIONAL UNDERNUTRITION,THRIFTY PHENOTYPE HYPOTHESIS,MILK-PRODUCTION,BIRTH-WEIGHT,REPRODUCTIVE-PERFORMANCE,ENVIRONMENTAL-FACTORS,REPLACEMENT HEIFERS,REDUCED FERTILITY,HOLSTEIN CALVES,REARING PERIOD},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Austin, TX, USA},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {52--57},
  title        = {Epidemiological evidence for metabolic programming in dairy cattle},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/rd16410},
  volume       = {29},
  year         = {2017},
}

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