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Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species in bulk milk : prevalence, distribution, and associated subgroup- and species-specific risk factors

(2017) JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE. 100(1). p.629-642
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Abstract
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) have become the main pathogens causing bovine mastitis in recent years. A huge variation in species distribution among herds has been observed in several studies, emphasizing the need to identify subgroup- and species specific herd-level factors to improve our understanding of the differences in ecological and epidemiological nature between species. The use of bulk milk samples enables the inclusion of a large(r) number of herds needed to identify herd-level risk factors and increases the likelihood of recovering enough isolates per species needed for conducting subgroup- and, eventually, species-specific analyses at the same time. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and distribution of CNS species in bulk milk samples and to identify associated subgroup- and species-specific herd-level factors. Ninety percent of all bulk milk samples yielded CNS. Staphylococcus equorum was the predominant species, followed by Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. A seasonal effect was observed for several CNS species. Bulk milk samples from herds with a loose-pack or a tiestall housing system were more likely to yield CNS species compared with herds with a freestall barn, except for S. epidermidis, Staphylococcus simulans, and Staphylococcus cohnii. In September, herds in which udders were clipped had lower odds of yielding Staphylococcus chromogenes, S. simulans, and Staphylococcus xylosus, the CNS species assumed to be most relevant for udder health, in their bulk milk than herds in which udder clipping was not practiced. Bulk milk of herds participating in a monthly veterinary udder health-monitoring program was more likely to yield these 3 CNS species. Herds always receiving their milk quality premium or predisinfecting teats before attachment of the milking cluster had lower odds of having S. equorum in their bulk milk. Herds not using a single dry cotton or paper towel for each cow during premilking udder preparation were more likely to have S. cohnii-positive bulk milk. Herds in which flushing with hot water or steam of the milking cluster after having milked a cow with a (sub)clinical mastitis was applied, were less likely to yield S. simulans, S. haemolyticus, and S. cohnii in their bulk milk. Always wearing gloves during milking decreased the odds of having Staphylococcus devriesei-positive bulk milk. Tap water from the public drinking system used as drinking water increased the odds of yielding S. simulans in the bulk milk. In conclusion, CNS are highly prevalent in bulk milk and might originate from the environment for some species (we hypothesize this is true for S. equorum or S. cohnii), or from within the udder (e.g., for S. simulans). Studies collecting bulk milk and quarter milk samples at the same time along with environmental samples are needed to determine the exact origin of the different (subgroups of) CNS species present in bulk milk using strain-typing techniques.
Keywords
dairy cattle, risk factor, coagulase-negative staphylococci, herd, PRINCE-EDWARD-ISLAND, SOMATIC-CELL COUNT, INTRAMAMMARY INFECTION, DAIRY HEIFERS, TANK MILK, UDDER HEALTH, MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY, MASTITIS PATHOGENS, BOVINE MASTITIS, QUARTER-LEVEL

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Citation

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MLA
De Visscher, Anneleen et al. “Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus Species in Bulk Milk : Prevalence, Distribution, and Associated Subgroup- and Species-specific Risk Factors.” JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE 100.1 (2017): 629–642. Print.
APA
De Visscher, A., Piepers, S., Haesebrouck, F., Supré, K., & De Vliegher, S. (2017). Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species in bulk milk : prevalence, distribution, and associated subgroup- and species-specific risk factors. JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE, 100(1), 629–642.
Chicago author-date
De Visscher, Anneleen, Sofie Piepers, Freddy Haesebrouck, K Supré, and Sarne De Vliegher. 2017. “Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus Species in Bulk Milk : Prevalence, Distribution, and Associated Subgroup- and Species-specific Risk Factors.” Journal of Dairy Science 100 (1): 629–642.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
De Visscher, Anneleen, Sofie Piepers, Freddy Haesebrouck, K Supré, and Sarne De Vliegher. 2017. “Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus Species in Bulk Milk : Prevalence, Distribution, and Associated Subgroup- and Species-specific Risk Factors.” Journal of Dairy Science 100 (1): 629–642.
Vancouver
1.
De Visscher A, Piepers S, Haesebrouck F, Supré K, De Vliegher S. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species in bulk milk : prevalence, distribution, and associated subgroup- and species-specific risk factors. JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE. 2017;100(1):629–42.
IEEE
[1]
A. De Visscher, S. Piepers, F. Haesebrouck, K. Supré, and S. De Vliegher, “Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species in bulk milk : prevalence, distribution, and associated subgroup- and species-specific risk factors,” JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE, vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 629–642, 2017.
@article{8508636,
  abstract     = {{Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) have become the main pathogens causing bovine mastitis in recent years. A huge variation in species distribution among herds has been observed in several studies, emphasizing the need to identify subgroup- and species specific herd-level factors to improve our understanding of the differences in ecological and epidemiological nature between species. The use of bulk milk samples enables the inclusion of a large(r) number of herds needed to identify herd-level risk factors and increases the likelihood of recovering enough isolates per species needed for conducting subgroup- and, eventually, species-specific analyses at the same time. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and distribution of CNS species in bulk milk samples and to identify associated subgroup- and species-specific herd-level factors. Ninety percent of all bulk milk samples yielded CNS. Staphylococcus equorum was the predominant species, followed by Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. A seasonal effect was observed for several CNS species. Bulk milk samples from herds with a loose-pack or a tiestall housing system were more likely to yield CNS species compared with herds with a freestall barn, except for S. epidermidis, Staphylococcus simulans, and Staphylococcus cohnii. In September, herds in which udders were clipped had lower odds of yielding Staphylococcus chromogenes, S. simulans, and Staphylococcus xylosus, the CNS species assumed to be most relevant for udder health, in their bulk milk than herds in which udder clipping was not practiced. Bulk milk of herds participating in a monthly veterinary udder health-monitoring program was more likely to yield these 3 CNS species. Herds always receiving their milk quality premium or predisinfecting teats before attachment of the milking cluster had lower odds of having S. equorum in their bulk milk. Herds not using a single dry cotton or paper towel for each cow during premilking udder preparation were more likely to have S. cohnii-positive bulk milk. Herds in which flushing with hot water or steam of the milking cluster after having milked a cow with a (sub)clinical mastitis was applied, were less likely to yield S. simulans, S. haemolyticus, and S. cohnii in their bulk milk. Always wearing gloves during milking decreased the odds of having Staphylococcus devriesei-positive bulk milk. Tap water from the public drinking system used as drinking water increased the odds of yielding S. simulans in the bulk milk. In conclusion, CNS are highly prevalent in bulk milk and might originate from the environment for some species (we hypothesize this is true for S. equorum or S. cohnii), or from within the udder (e.g., for S. simulans). Studies collecting bulk milk and quarter milk samples at the same time along with environmental samples are needed to determine the exact origin of the different (subgroups of) CNS species present in bulk milk using strain-typing techniques.}},
  author       = {{De Visscher, Anneleen and Piepers, Sofie and Haesebrouck, Freddy and Supré, K and De Vliegher, Sarne}},
  issn         = {{0022-0302}},
  journal      = {{JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE}},
  keywords     = {{dairy cattle,risk factor,coagulase-negative staphylococci,herd,PRINCE-EDWARD-ISLAND,SOMATIC-CELL COUNT,INTRAMAMMARY INFECTION,DAIRY HEIFERS,TANK MILK,UDDER HEALTH,MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY,MASTITIS PATHOGENS,BOVINE MASTITIS,QUARTER-LEVEL}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{1}},
  pages        = {{629--642}},
  title        = {{Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species in bulk milk : prevalence, distribution, and associated subgroup- and species-specific risk factors}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2016-11476}},
  volume       = {{100}},
  year         = {{2017}},
}

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