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Numerically simulated exposure of children and adults to pulsed gradient fields in MRI

Mohammed Samoudi (UGent) , Günter Vermeeren (UGent) , Emmeric Tanghe (UGent) , Roel Van Holen (UGent) , Luc Martens (UGent) and Wout Joseph (UGent)
Author
Organization
Abstract
PurposeTo determine exposure to gradient switching fields of adults and children in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner by evaluating internal electric fields within realistic models of adult male, adult female, and child inside transverse and longitudinal gradient coils, and to compare these results with compliance guidelines. Materials and MethodsPatients inside x-, y-, and z-gradient coils were simulated using anatomically realistic models of adult male, adult female, and child. The induced electric fields were computed for 1 kHz sinusoidal current with a magnitude of 1 A in the gradient coils. Rheobase electric fields were then calculated and compared to the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) 2004 and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 2010 guidelines. The effect of the human body, coil type, and skin conductivity on the induced electric field was also investigated. ResultsThe internal electric fields are within the first level controlled operating mode of the guidelines and range from 2.7V m(-1) to 4.5V m(-1), except for the adult male inside the y-gradient coil (induced field reaches 5.4V m(-1)).The induced electric field is sensitive to the coil type (electric field in the skin of adult male: 4V m(-1), 4.6V m(-1), and 3.8V m(-1) for x-, y-, and z-gradient coils, respectively), the human body model (electric field in the skin inside y-gradient coil: 4.6V m(-1), 4.2V m(-1), and 3V m(-1) for adult male, adult female, and child, respectively), and the skin conductivity (electric field 2.35-4.29% higher for 0.1S m(-1) skin conductivity compared to 0.2S m(-1)). ConclusionThe y-gradient coil induced the largest fields in the patients. The highest levels of internal electric fields occurred for the adult male model. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:1360-1367.
Keywords
PERIPHERAL-NERVE STIMULATION, MAGNETIC-FIELDS, HUMAN-BODY, ELECTRIC-FIELDS, CURRENTS, COILS, MRI, exposure, ICNIRP, IEC, induced electric field, peripheral nerve, stimulation

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

MLA
Samoudi, Mohammed et al. “Numerically Simulated Exposure of Children and Adults to Pulsed Gradient Fields in MRI.” JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING 76.5 (2016): 1360–1367. Print.
APA
Samoudi, M., Vermeeren, G., Tanghe, E., Van Holen, R., Martens, L., & Joseph, W. (2016). Numerically simulated exposure of children and adults to pulsed gradient fields in MRI. JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, 76(5), 1360–1367.
Chicago author-date
Samoudi, Mohammed, Günter Vermeeren, Emmeric Tanghe, Roel Van Holen, Luc Martens, and Wout Joseph. 2016. “Numerically Simulated Exposure of Children and Adults to Pulsed Gradient Fields in MRI.” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 76 (5): 1360–1367.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Samoudi, Mohammed, Günter Vermeeren, Emmeric Tanghe, Roel Van Holen, Luc Martens, and Wout Joseph. 2016. “Numerically Simulated Exposure of Children and Adults to Pulsed Gradient Fields in MRI.” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 76 (5): 1360–1367.
Vancouver
1.
Samoudi M, Vermeeren G, Tanghe E, Van Holen R, Martens L, Joseph W. Numerically simulated exposure of children and adults to pulsed gradient fields in MRI. JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING. Hoboken: Wiley-blackwell; 2016;76(5):1360–7.
IEEE
[1]
M. Samoudi, G. Vermeeren, E. Tanghe, R. Van Holen, L. Martens, and W. Joseph, “Numerically simulated exposure of children and adults to pulsed gradient fields in MRI,” JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, vol. 76, no. 5, pp. 1360–1367, 2016.
@article{8508162,
  abstract     = {PurposeTo determine exposure to gradient switching fields of adults and children in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner by evaluating internal electric fields within realistic models of adult male, adult female, and child inside transverse and longitudinal gradient coils, and to compare these results with compliance guidelines. Materials and MethodsPatients inside x-, y-, and z-gradient coils were simulated using anatomically realistic models of adult male, adult female, and child. The induced electric fields were computed for 1 kHz sinusoidal current with a magnitude of 1 A in the gradient coils. Rheobase electric fields were then calculated and compared to the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) 2004 and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 2010 guidelines. The effect of the human body, coil type, and skin conductivity on the induced electric field was also investigated. ResultsThe internal electric fields are within the first level controlled operating mode of the guidelines and range from 2.7V m(-1) to 4.5V m(-1), except for the adult male inside the y-gradient coil (induced field reaches 5.4V m(-1)).The induced electric field is sensitive to the coil type (electric field in the skin of adult male: 4V m(-1), 4.6V m(-1), and 3.8V m(-1) for x-, y-, and z-gradient coils, respectively), the human body model (electric field in the skin inside y-gradient coil: 4.6V m(-1), 4.2V m(-1), and 3V m(-1) for adult male, adult female, and child, respectively), and the skin conductivity (electric field 2.35-4.29% higher for 0.1S m(-1) skin conductivity compared to 0.2S m(-1)). ConclusionThe y-gradient coil induced the largest fields in the patients. The highest levels of internal electric fields occurred for the adult male model. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:1360-1367.},
  author       = {Samoudi, Mohammed and Vermeeren, Günter and Tanghe, Emmeric and Van Holen, Roel and Martens, Luc and Joseph, Wout},
  issn         = {1053-1807},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING},
  keywords     = {PERIPHERAL-NERVE STIMULATION,MAGNETIC-FIELDS,HUMAN-BODY,ELECTRIC-FIELDS,CURRENTS,COILS,MRI,exposure,ICNIRP,IEC,induced electric field,peripheral nerve,stimulation},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {1360--1367},
  publisher    = {Wiley-blackwell},
  title        = {Numerically simulated exposure of children and adults to pulsed gradient fields in MRI},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.25257},
  volume       = {76},
  year         = {2016},
}

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