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Adaptation to fragmentation : evolutionary dynamics driven by human influences

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Abstract
Fragmentation-the process by which habitats are transformed into smaller patches isolated from each other-has been identified as a major threat for biodiversity. Fragmentation has well-established demographic and population genetic consequences, eroding genetic diversity and hindering gene flow among patches. However, fragmentation should also select on life history, both predictably through increased isolation, demographic stochasticity and edge effects, and more idiosyncratically via altered biotic interactions. While species have adapted to natural fragmentation, adaptation to anthropogenic fragmentation has received little attention. In this review, we address how and whether organisms might adapt to anthropogenic fragmentation. Drawing on selected case studies and evolutionary ecology models, we show that anthropogenic fragmentation can generate selection on traits at both the patch and landscape scale, and affect the adaptive potential of populations. We suggest that dispersal traits are likely to experience especially strong selection, as dispersal both enables migration among patches and increases the risk of landing in the inhospitable matrix surrounding them. We highlight that suites of associated traits are likely to evolve together. Importantly, we show that adaptation will not necessarily rescue populations from the negative effects of fragmentation, and may even exacerbate them, endangering the entire metapopulation. This article is part of the themed issue 'Human influences on evolution, and the ecological and societal consequences'.
Keywords
anthropogenic fragmentation, metapopulation, dispersal, short-term adaptation, island biogeography, evolutionary rescue, HABITAT FRAGMENTATION, LOCAL ADAPTATION, RAPID EVOLUTION, GENETIC CONSEQUENCES, LANDSCAPE STRUCTURE, PLANT-POPULATIONS, SEED DISPERSAL, CLIMATE-CHANGE, FLORAL TRAITS, MATING SYSTEM

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

Chicago
Cheptou, Pierre-Olivier, Anna L Hargreaves, Dries Bonte, and Hans Jacquemyn. 2017. “Adaptation to Fragmentation : Evolutionary Dynamics Driven by Human Influences.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-biological Sciences 372 (1712).
APA
Cheptou, P.-O., Hargreaves, A. L., Bonte, D., & Jacquemyn, H. (2017). Adaptation to fragmentation : evolutionary dynamics driven by human influences. PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 372(1712).
Vancouver
1.
Cheptou P-O, Hargreaves AL, Bonte D, Jacquemyn H. Adaptation to fragmentation : evolutionary dynamics driven by human influences. PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 2017;372(1712).
MLA
Cheptou, Pierre-Olivier, Anna L Hargreaves, Dries Bonte, et al. “Adaptation to Fragmentation : Evolutionary Dynamics Driven by Human Influences.” PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 372.1712 (2017): n. pag. Print.
@article{8507554,
  abstract     = {Fragmentation-the process by which habitats are transformed into smaller patches isolated from each other-has been identified as a major threat for biodiversity. Fragmentation has well-established demographic and population genetic consequences, eroding genetic diversity and hindering gene flow among patches. However, fragmentation should also select on life history, both predictably through increased isolation, demographic stochasticity and edge effects, and more idiosyncratically via altered biotic interactions. While species have adapted to natural fragmentation, adaptation to anthropogenic fragmentation has received little attention. In this review, we address how and whether organisms might adapt to anthropogenic fragmentation. Drawing on selected case studies and evolutionary ecology models, we show that anthropogenic fragmentation can generate selection on traits at both the patch and landscape scale, and affect the adaptive potential of populations. We suggest that dispersal traits are likely to experience especially strong selection, as dispersal both enables migration among patches and increases the risk of landing in the inhospitable matrix surrounding them. We highlight that suites of associated traits are likely to evolve together. Importantly, we show that adaptation will not necessarily rescue populations from the negative effects of fragmentation, and may even exacerbate them, endangering the entire metapopulation. This article is part of the themed issue 'Human influences on evolution, and the ecological and societal consequences'.},
  articleno    = {20160037},
  author       = {Cheptou, Pierre-Olivier and Hargreaves, Anna L and Bonte, Dries and Jacquemyn, Hans},
  issn         = {0962-8436},
  journal      = {PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES},
  keyword      = {anthropogenic fragmentation,metapopulation,dispersal,short-term adaptation,island biogeography,evolutionary rescue,HABITAT FRAGMENTATION,LOCAL ADAPTATION,RAPID EVOLUTION,GENETIC CONSEQUENCES,LANDSCAPE STRUCTURE,PLANT-POPULATIONS,SEED DISPERSAL,CLIMATE-CHANGE,FLORAL TRAITS,MATING SYSTEM},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1712},
  pages        = {10},
  title        = {Adaptation to fragmentation : evolutionary dynamics driven by human influences},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2016.0037},
  volume       = {372},
  year         = {2017},
}

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