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Evolutionary toxicology : meta-analysis of evolutionary events in response to chemical stressors

(2016) ECOTOXICOLOGY. 25(10). p.1858-1866
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Abstract
The regulatory decision-making process regarding chemical safety is most often informed by evidence based on ecotoxicity tests that consider growth, reproduction and survival as end-points, which can be quantitatively linked to short-term population outcomes. Changes in these end-points resulting from chemical exposure can cause alterations in micro-evolutionary forces (mutation, drift, selection and gene flow) that control the genetic composition of populations. With multi-generation exposures, anthropogenic contamination can lead to a population with an altered genetic composition, which may respond differently to future stressors. These evolutionary changes are rarely discussed in regulatory or risk assessment frameworks, but the growing body of literature that documents their existence suggests that these important population-level impacts should be considered. In this meta-analysis we have compared existing contamination levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that have been documented to be associated with evolutionary changes in resident aquatic organisms to regulatory benchmarks for these contaminants. The original intent of this project was to perform a meta-analysis on evolutionary events associated with PCB and PAH contamination. However, this effort was hindered by a lack of consistency in congener selection for "total" PCB or PAH measurements. We expanded this manuscript to include a discussion of methods used to determine PCB and PAH total contamination in addition to comparing regulatory guidelines and contamination that has caused evolutionary effects. Micro-evolutionary responses often lead populations onto unique and unpredictable trajectories. Therefore, to better understand the risk of population-wide alterations occurring, we need to improve comparisons of chemical contamination between affected locations. In this manuscript we offer several possibilities to unify chemical comparisons for PCBs and PAHs that would improve comparability among evolutionary toxicology investigations, and with regulatory guidelines. In addition, we identify studies documenting evolutionary change in the presence of PCB and PAH contamination levels below applicable regulatory benchmarks.
Keywords
Polychlorinated biphenyls, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Micro-evolution, Evolutionary toxicology, POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC-HYDROCARBONS, SEDIMENT QUALITY GUIDELINES, KILLIFISH FUNDULUS-HETEROCLITUS, HOUSTON SHIP CHANNEL, POPULATION GENETIC-STRUCTURE, POLYCHLORINATED-BIPHENYLS, HUDSON RIVER, ELIZABETH RIVER, FISH, RESISTANCE

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

MLA
Oziolor, Elias M, Karel De Schamphelaere, and Cole W Matson. “Evolutionary Toxicology : Meta-analysis of Evolutionary Events in Response to Chemical Stressors.” ECOTOXICOLOGY 25.10 (2016): 1858–1866. Print.
APA
Oziolor, E. M., De Schamphelaere, K., & Matson, C. W. (2016). Evolutionary toxicology : meta-analysis of evolutionary events in response to chemical stressors. ECOTOXICOLOGY, 25(10), 1858–1866.
Chicago author-date
Oziolor, Elias M, Karel De Schamphelaere, and Cole W Matson. 2016. “Evolutionary Toxicology : Meta-analysis of Evolutionary Events in Response to Chemical Stressors.” Ecotoxicology 25 (10): 1858–1866.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Oziolor, Elias M, Karel De Schamphelaere, and Cole W Matson. 2016. “Evolutionary Toxicology : Meta-analysis of Evolutionary Events in Response to Chemical Stressors.” Ecotoxicology 25 (10): 1858–1866.
Vancouver
1.
Oziolor EM, De Schamphelaere K, Matson CW. Evolutionary toxicology : meta-analysis of evolutionary events in response to chemical stressors. ECOTOXICOLOGY. 2016;25(10):1858–66.
IEEE
[1]
E. M. Oziolor, K. De Schamphelaere, and C. W. Matson, “Evolutionary toxicology : meta-analysis of evolutionary events in response to chemical stressors,” ECOTOXICOLOGY, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 1858–1866, 2016.
@article{8507488,
  abstract     = {The regulatory decision-making process regarding chemical safety is most often informed by evidence based on ecotoxicity tests that consider growth, reproduction and survival as end-points, which can be quantitatively linked to short-term population outcomes. Changes in these end-points resulting from chemical exposure can cause alterations in micro-evolutionary forces (mutation, drift, selection and gene flow) that control the genetic composition of populations. With multi-generation exposures, anthropogenic contamination can lead to a population with an altered genetic composition, which may respond differently to future stressors. These evolutionary changes are rarely discussed in regulatory or risk assessment frameworks, but the growing body of literature that documents their existence suggests that these important population-level impacts should be considered. In this meta-analysis we have compared existing contamination levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that have been documented to be associated with evolutionary changes in resident aquatic organisms to regulatory benchmarks for these contaminants. The original intent of this project was to perform a meta-analysis on evolutionary events associated with PCB and PAH contamination. However, this effort was hindered by a lack of consistency in congener selection for "total" PCB or PAH measurements. We expanded this manuscript to include a discussion of methods used to determine PCB and PAH total contamination in addition to comparing regulatory guidelines and contamination that has caused evolutionary effects. Micro-evolutionary responses often lead populations onto unique and unpredictable trajectories. Therefore, to better understand the risk of population-wide alterations occurring, we need to improve comparisons of chemical contamination between affected locations. In this manuscript we offer several possibilities to unify chemical comparisons for PCBs and PAHs that would improve comparability among evolutionary toxicology investigations, and with regulatory guidelines. In addition, we identify studies documenting evolutionary change in the presence of PCB and PAH contamination levels below applicable regulatory benchmarks.},
  author       = {Oziolor, Elias M and De Schamphelaere, Karel and Matson, Cole W},
  issn         = {0963-9292},
  journal      = {ECOTOXICOLOGY},
  keywords     = {Polychlorinated biphenyls,Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,Micro-evolution,Evolutionary toxicology,POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC-HYDROCARBONS,SEDIMENT QUALITY GUIDELINES,KILLIFISH FUNDULUS-HETEROCLITUS,HOUSTON SHIP CHANNEL,POPULATION GENETIC-STRUCTURE,POLYCHLORINATED-BIPHENYLS,HUDSON RIVER,ELIZABETH RIVER,FISH,RESISTANCE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {10},
  pages        = {1858--1866},
  title        = {Evolutionary toxicology : meta-analysis of evolutionary events in response to chemical stressors},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10646-016-1735-6},
  volume       = {25},
  year         = {2016},
}

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