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Comparison of the motor performance and vestibular function in infants with a congenital cytomegalovirus infection or a connexin 26 mutation : a preliminary study

Leen Maes (UGent) , Alexandra De Kegel (UGent) , Hilde Van Waelvelde (UGent) , Els De Leenheer (UGent) , Helen Van Hoecke (UGent) , JULIE GODERIS (UGent) and Ingeborg Dhooge (UGent)
(2017) EAR AND HEARING. 38(1). p.e49-e56
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Abstract
Objectives: Hearing-impaired children are at risk for vestibular damage and delayed motor development. Two major causes of congenital hearing loss are cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and connexin (Cx) 26 mutations. Comparison of the motor performance and vestibular function between these specific groups is still underexplored. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of congenital (c) CMV and Cx26 on the motor performance and vestibular function in 6 months old infants. Design: Forty children (mean age 6.7 months; range 4.8 to 8.9 months) participated in this cross-sectional design and were recruited from the Flemish CMV registry. They were divided into five age-matched groups: normal-hearing control, asymptomatic cCMV, normal-hearing symptomatic cCMV, hearing-impaired symptomatic cCMV, and hearing-impaired Cx26. Children were examined with the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) test. Results: Symptomatic hearing-impaired cCMV children demonstrated a significantly lower gross motor performance compared with the control group (p = 0.005), the asymptomatic cCMV group (p = 0.034), and the Cx26 group (0.016). In this symptomatic hearing-impaired cCMV group, 4 out of 8 children had absent cVEMP responses that were related to the weakest gross motor performance. The Cx26 children showed no significant delay in motor development compared with the control children and none of these children had absent cVEMP responses. Conclusions: The weakest gross motor performance was found in symptomatic hearing-impaired cCMV-infected children with absent cVEMP responses. These results suggest that abnormal saccular responses are a major factor for this delayed motor development, although more work is needed including comprehensive vestibular function testing to verify this.
Keywords
Connexin 26, Cytomegalovirus, Hearing-impaired children, Motor performance, Vestibular, Vestibular-evoked myogenic potential, SENSORINEURAL HEARING-LOSS, EVOKED MYOGENIC POTENTIALS, IMPAIRED CHILDREN, COCHLEAR IMPLANTS, DEAF-CHILDREN, SACCULAR FUNCTION, CMV INFECTION, GAP-JUNCTIONS, DYSFUNCTION, IMPAIRMENTS

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Chicago
Maes, Leen, Alexandra De Kegel, Hilde Van Waelvelde, Els De Leenheer, Helen Van Hoecke, JULIE GODERIS, and Ingeborg Dhooge. 2017. “Comparison of the Motor Performance and Vestibular Function in Infants with a Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection or a Connexin 26 Mutation : a Preliminary Study.” Ear and Hearing 38 (1): e49–e56.
APA
Maes, Leen, De Kegel, A., Van Waelvelde, H., De Leenheer, E., Van Hoecke, H., GODERIS, J., & Dhooge, I. (2017). Comparison of the motor performance and vestibular function in infants with a congenital cytomegalovirus infection or a connexin 26 mutation : a preliminary study. EAR AND HEARING, 38(1), e49–e56.
Vancouver
1.
Maes L, De Kegel A, Van Waelvelde H, De Leenheer E, Van Hoecke H, GODERIS J, et al. Comparison of the motor performance and vestibular function in infants with a congenital cytomegalovirus infection or a connexin 26 mutation : a preliminary study. EAR AND HEARING. 2017;38(1):e49–e56.
MLA
Maes, Leen, Alexandra De Kegel, Hilde Van Waelvelde, et al. “Comparison of the Motor Performance and Vestibular Function in Infants with a Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection or a Connexin 26 Mutation : a Preliminary Study.” EAR AND HEARING 38.1 (2017): e49–e56. Print.
@article{8507308,
  abstract     = {Objectives: Hearing-impaired children are at risk for vestibular damage and delayed motor development. Two major causes of congenital hearing loss are cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and connexin (Cx) 26 mutations. Comparison of the motor performance and vestibular function between these specific groups is still underexplored. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of congenital (c) CMV and Cx26 on the motor performance and vestibular function in 6 months old infants. 
Design: Forty children (mean age 6.7 months; range 4.8 to 8.9 months) participated in this cross-sectional design and were recruited from the Flemish CMV registry. They were divided into five age-matched groups: normal-hearing control, asymptomatic cCMV, normal-hearing symptomatic cCMV, hearing-impaired symptomatic cCMV, and hearing-impaired Cx26. Children were examined with the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) test. 
Results: Symptomatic hearing-impaired cCMV children demonstrated a significantly lower gross motor performance compared with the control group (p = 0.005), the asymptomatic cCMV group (p = 0.034), and the Cx26 group (0.016). In this symptomatic hearing-impaired cCMV group, 4 out of 8 children had absent cVEMP responses that were related to the weakest gross motor performance. The Cx26 children showed no significant delay in motor development compared with the control children and none of these children had absent cVEMP responses. 
Conclusions: The weakest gross motor performance was found in symptomatic hearing-impaired cCMV-infected children with absent cVEMP responses. These results suggest that abnormal saccular responses are a major factor for this delayed motor development, although more work is needed including comprehensive vestibular function testing to verify this.},
  author       = {Maes, Leen and De Kegel, Alexandra and Van Waelvelde, Hilde and De Leenheer, Els and Van Hoecke, Helen and GODERIS, JULIE and Dhooge, Ingeborg},
  issn         = {0196-0202},
  journal      = {EAR AND HEARING},
  keyword      = {Connexin 26,Cytomegalovirus,Hearing-impaired children,Motor performance,Vestibular,Vestibular-evoked myogenic potential,SENSORINEURAL HEARING-LOSS,EVOKED MYOGENIC POTENTIALS,IMPAIRED CHILDREN,COCHLEAR IMPLANTS,DEAF-CHILDREN,SACCULAR FUNCTION,CMV INFECTION,GAP-JUNCTIONS,DYSFUNCTION,IMPAIRMENTS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {e49--e56},
  title        = {Comparison of the motor performance and vestibular function in infants with a congenital cytomegalovirus infection or a connexin 26 mutation : a preliminary study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AUD.0000000000000364},
  volume       = {38},
  year         = {2017},
}

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