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Upper quadrant field tests and isokinetic upper limb strength in overhead athletes

Dorien Borms (UGent) , Annelies Maenhout (UGent) and Ann Cools (UGent)
(2016) JOURNAL OF ATHLETIC TRAINING. 51(12). p.789-796
Author
Organization
Abstract
Context: Isokinetic testing is used to determine possible deficits in upper extremity strength in overhead athletes. Given that isokinetic testing is restricted to a laboratory setting, field tests, such as the Seated Medicine Ball Throw (SMBT) and Upper Quarter Y-Balance Test (YBT-UQ), were developed to assess upper body performance. The relationships between these field tests and isokinetic strength have not been examined. Objective: To investigate the relationship between isokinetic strength testing for shoulder external and internal rotation and elbow flexion and extension and SMBT distance and YBT-UQ performance in overhead athletes. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Institutional laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 29 healthy overhead athletes (14 men, 15 women; age = 21.6 +/- 2.5 years, height = 177.7 +/- 9.7 cm, mass = 70.3 +/- 11.5 kg). Intervention(s): A Biodex dynamometer was used to measure the isokinetic strength of the shoulder and elbow muscles. Upper extremity performance was assessed using the SMBT and YBT-UQ. Main Outcome Measure(s): We used Pearson correlation coefficients and coefficients of determination to analyze the relationship between SMBT and YBT-UQ performance and the isokinetic strength variables. Results: We observed moderate to strong correlations between the SMBT and isokinetic shoulder and elbow strength (r range = 0.595-0.855) but no correlations between the YBT-UQ and isokinetic strength variables. The shared variance between these strength variables and the SMBT ranged from 35.4% to 64.5% for shoulder strength and 58.5% to 73.1% for elbow strength. Conclusions: These findings suggested that the SMBT is a reliable, low-cost, and easy-and quick-to-administer alternative to isokinetic testing for evaluating upper extremity strength in a clinical setting. Performance on the YBT-UQ did not seem to be related to upper limb strength and, therefore, cannot be used for this purpose. Using the YBT-UQ for other purposes may have value.
Keywords
shoulder, elbow, Seated Medicine Ball Throw, Y-Balance Test, UPPER-BODY POWER, MEDICINE BALL THROW, SHOULDER INJURY, BASEBALL PITCHERS, TRAINING-PROGRAM, ELBOW INJURIES, RELIABILITY, PERFORMANCE, PLAYERS, IMPINGEMENT

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

MLA
Borms, Dorien, Annelies Maenhout, and Ann Cools. “Upper Quadrant Field Tests and Isokinetic Upper Limb Strength in Overhead Athletes.” JOURNAL OF ATHLETIC TRAINING 51.12 (2016): 789–796. Print.
APA
Borms, D., Maenhout, A., & Cools, A. (2016). Upper quadrant field tests and isokinetic upper limb strength in overhead athletes. JOURNAL OF ATHLETIC TRAINING, 51(12), 789–796.
Chicago author-date
Borms, Dorien, Annelies Maenhout, and Ann Cools. 2016. “Upper Quadrant Field Tests and Isokinetic Upper Limb Strength in Overhead Athletes.” Journal of Athletic Training 51 (12): 789–796.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Borms, Dorien, Annelies Maenhout, and Ann Cools. 2016. “Upper Quadrant Field Tests and Isokinetic Upper Limb Strength in Overhead Athletes.” Journal of Athletic Training 51 (12): 789–796.
Vancouver
1.
Borms D, Maenhout A, Cools A. Upper quadrant field tests and isokinetic upper limb strength in overhead athletes. JOURNAL OF ATHLETIC TRAINING. 2016;51(12):789–96.
IEEE
[1]
D. Borms, A. Maenhout, and A. Cools, “Upper quadrant field tests and isokinetic upper limb strength in overhead athletes,” JOURNAL OF ATHLETIC TRAINING, vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 789–796, 2016.
@article{8506160,
  abstract     = {Context: Isokinetic testing is used to determine possible deficits in upper extremity strength in overhead athletes. Given that isokinetic testing is restricted to a laboratory setting, field tests, such as the Seated Medicine Ball Throw (SMBT) and Upper Quarter Y-Balance Test (YBT-UQ), were developed to assess upper body performance. The relationships between these field tests and isokinetic strength have not been examined. 
Objective: To investigate the relationship between isokinetic strength testing for shoulder external and internal rotation and elbow flexion and extension and SMBT distance and YBT-UQ performance in overhead athletes. 
Design: Cross-sectional study. 
Setting: Institutional laboratory. 
Patients or Other Participants: A total of 29 healthy overhead athletes (14 men, 15 women; age = 21.6 +/- 2.5 years, height = 177.7 +/- 9.7 cm, mass = 70.3 +/- 11.5 kg). 
Intervention(s): A Biodex dynamometer was used to measure the isokinetic strength of the shoulder and elbow muscles. Upper extremity performance was assessed using the SMBT and YBT-UQ. 
Main Outcome Measure(s): We used Pearson correlation coefficients and coefficients of determination to analyze the relationship between SMBT and YBT-UQ performance and the isokinetic strength variables. 
Results: We observed moderate to strong correlations between the SMBT and isokinetic shoulder and elbow strength (r range = 0.595-0.855) but no correlations between the YBT-UQ and isokinetic strength variables. The shared variance between these strength variables and the SMBT ranged from 35.4% to 64.5% for shoulder strength and 58.5% to 73.1% for elbow strength. 
Conclusions: These findings suggested that the SMBT is a reliable, low-cost, and easy-and quick-to-administer alternative to isokinetic testing for evaluating upper extremity strength in a clinical setting. Performance on the YBT-UQ did not seem to be related to upper limb strength and, therefore, cannot be used for this purpose. Using the YBT-UQ for other purposes may have value.},
  author       = {Borms, Dorien and Maenhout, Annelies and Cools, Ann},
  issn         = {1062-6050},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF ATHLETIC TRAINING},
  keywords     = {shoulder,elbow,Seated Medicine Ball Throw,Y-Balance Test,UPPER-BODY POWER,MEDICINE BALL THROW,SHOULDER INJURY,BASEBALL PITCHERS,TRAINING-PROGRAM,ELBOW INJURIES,RELIABILITY,PERFORMANCE,PLAYERS,IMPINGEMENT},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {12},
  pages        = {789--796},
  title        = {Upper quadrant field tests and isokinetic upper limb strength in overhead athletes},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-51.12.06},
  volume       = {51},
  year         = {2016},
}

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