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Cardiorespiratory effects of enoximone in anaesthetised colic horses

Stijn Schauvliege (UGent) , Miguel Gozalo Marcilla (UGent) , Luc Duchateau (UGent) , Ann Martens (UGent) , Lieven Vlaminck (UGent) , Frederik Pille (UGent) , Jeroen Declercq (UGent) , Tamara Levet (UGent) and Frank Gasthuys (UGent)
(2009) EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL. 41(8). p.778-785
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Abstract
Reasons for performing study: No studies have been reported on the effects of enoximone in anaesthetised colic horses. Objective: To examine whether enoximone improves cardiovascular function and reduces dobutamine requirement in anaesthetised colic horses. Methods: Forty-eight mature colic horses were enrolled in this prospective, randomised clinical trial. After sedation (xylazine 0.7 mg/kg bwt) and induction (midazolam 0.06 mg/kg bwt, ketamine 2.2 mg/kg bwt), anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen and a lidocaine constant rate infusion (1.5 mg/kg bwt, 2 mg/kg/h). Horses were ventilated (PaCO2 < 8.00 kPa). If hypotension occurred, dobutamine and/or colloids were administered. Ten minutes after skin incision, horses randomly received an i.v. bolus of enoximone (0.5 mg/kg bwt) or saline. Monitoring included respiratory and arterial blood gases, heart rate (HR), arterial pressure and cardiac index (CI). Systemic vascular resistance (SVR), stroke index (SI) and oxygen delivery index (DO2I) were calculated. For each variable, changes between baseline and T10 within each treatment group and/or colic type (small intestines, large intestines or mixed) were analysed and compared between treatments in a fixed effects model. Differences between treatments until T30 were investigated using a mixed model (alpha = 0.05). Results: Ten minutes after enoximone treatment, CI (P = 0.0010), HR (P = 0.0033) and DO2I (P = 0.0007) were higher and SVR lower (P = 0.0043) than at baseline. The changes in CI, HR and SVR were significantly different from those after saline treatment. During the first 30 min after enoximone treatment, DO2I (P = 0.0224) and HR (P = 0.0003) were higher than after saline administration. Because the difference in HR between treatments was much clearer in large intestine colic cases, an interaction was detected between treatment and colic type in both analyses (P = 0.0076 and 0.0038, respectively). Conclusions: Enoximone produced significant, but short lasting, cardiovascular effects in colic horses. Potential relevance: Enoximone's cardiovascular effects in colic horses were of shorter duration than in healthy ponies.
Keywords
RISK-FACTORS, EQUINE, MDL 17, celiotomy 043, colic, cardiovascular effects, enoximone, horse, MORTALITY, DOBUTAMINE, PONIES, ANESTHESIA

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MLA
Schauvliege, Stijn et al. “Cardiorespiratory Effects of Enoximone in Anaesthetised Colic Horses.” EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL 41.8 (2009): 778–785. Print.
APA
Schauvliege, S., Gozalo Marcilla, M., Duchateau, L., Martens, A., Vlaminck, L., Pille, F., Declercq, J., et al. (2009). Cardiorespiratory effects of enoximone in anaesthetised colic horses. EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL, 41(8), 778–785.
Chicago author-date
Schauvliege, Stijn, Miguel Gozalo Marcilla, Luc Duchateau, Ann Martens, Lieven Vlaminck, Frederik Pille, Jeroen Declercq, Tamara Levet, and Frank Gasthuys. 2009. “Cardiorespiratory Effects of Enoximone in Anaesthetised Colic Horses.” Equine Veterinary Journal 41 (8): 778–785.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Schauvliege, Stijn, Miguel Gozalo Marcilla, Luc Duchateau, Ann Martens, Lieven Vlaminck, Frederik Pille, Jeroen Declercq, Tamara Levet, and Frank Gasthuys. 2009. “Cardiorespiratory Effects of Enoximone in Anaesthetised Colic Horses.” Equine Veterinary Journal 41 (8): 778–785.
Vancouver
1.
Schauvliege S, Gozalo Marcilla M, Duchateau L, Martens A, Vlaminck L, Pille F, et al. Cardiorespiratory effects of enoximone in anaesthetised colic horses. EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL. 2009;41(8):778–85.
IEEE
[1]
S. Schauvliege et al., “Cardiorespiratory effects of enoximone in anaesthetised colic horses,” EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 778–785, 2009.
@article{850471,
  abstract     = {Reasons for performing study: No studies have been reported on the effects of enoximone in anaesthetised colic horses.
Objective: To examine whether enoximone improves cardiovascular function and reduces dobutamine requirement in anaesthetised colic horses.
Methods: Forty-eight mature colic horses were enrolled in this prospective, randomised clinical trial. After sedation (xylazine 0.7 mg/kg bwt) and induction (midazolam 0.06 mg/kg bwt, ketamine 2.2 mg/kg bwt), anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen and a lidocaine constant rate infusion (1.5 mg/kg bwt, 2 mg/kg/h). Horses were ventilated (PaCO2 < 8.00 kPa). If hypotension occurred, dobutamine and/or colloids were administered. Ten minutes after skin incision, horses randomly received an i.v. bolus of enoximone (0.5 mg/kg bwt) or saline. Monitoring included respiratory and arterial blood gases, heart rate (HR), arterial pressure and cardiac index (CI). Systemic vascular resistance (SVR), stroke index (SI) and oxygen delivery index (DO2I) were calculated. For each variable, changes between baseline and T10 within each treatment group and/or colic type (small intestines, large intestines or mixed) were analysed and compared between treatments in a fixed effects model. Differences between treatments until T30 were investigated using a mixed model (alpha = 0.05).
Results: Ten minutes after enoximone treatment, CI (P = 0.0010), HR (P = 0.0033) and DO2I (P = 0.0007) were higher and SVR lower (P = 0.0043) than at baseline. The changes in CI, HR and SVR were significantly different from those after saline treatment. During the first 30 min after enoximone treatment, DO2I (P = 0.0224) and HR (P = 0.0003) were higher than after saline administration. Because the difference in HR between treatments was much clearer in large intestine colic cases, an interaction was detected between treatment and colic type in both analyses (P = 0.0076 and 0.0038, respectively).
Conclusions: Enoximone produced significant, but short lasting, cardiovascular effects in colic horses. Potential relevance: Enoximone's cardiovascular effects in colic horses were of shorter duration than in healthy ponies.},
  author       = {Schauvliege, Stijn and Gozalo Marcilla, Miguel and Duchateau, Luc and Martens, Ann and Vlaminck, Lieven and Pille, Frederik and Declercq, Jeroen and Levet, Tamara and Gasthuys, Frank},
  issn         = {0425-1644},
  journal      = {EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL},
  keywords     = {RISK-FACTORS,EQUINE,MDL 17,celiotomy 043,colic,cardiovascular effects,enoximone,horse,MORTALITY,DOBUTAMINE,PONIES,ANESTHESIA},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {8},
  pages        = {778--785},
  title        = {Cardiorespiratory effects of enoximone in anaesthetised colic horses},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2746/042516409X424117},
  volume       = {41},
  year         = {2009},
}

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