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Household food insecurity and mental distress among pregnant women in Southwestern Ethiopia : a cross sectional study design

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Abstract
Background: There are compelling theoretical and empirical reasons that link household food insecurity to mental distress in the setting where both problems are common. However, little is known about their association during pregnancy in Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the association of household food insecurity with mental distress during pregnancy. Six hundred and forty-two pregnant women were recruited from 11 health centers and one hospital. Probability proportional to size (PPS) and consecutive sampling techniques were employed to recruit study subjects until the desired sample size was obtained. The Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) was used to measure mental distress and a 9-item Household Food Insecurity Access Scale was used to measure food security status. Descriptive and inferential statistics were computed accordingly. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of food insecurity on mental distress. Results: Fifty eight of the respondents (9 %) were moderately food insecure and 144 of the respondents (22.4 %) had mental distress. Food insecurity was also associated with mental distress. Pregnant women living in food insecure households were 4 times more likely to have mental distress than their counterparts (COR = 3.77, 95 % CI: 2.17, 6.55). After controlling for confounders, a multivariate logistic regression model supported a link between food insecurity and mental distress (AOR = 4.15, 95 % CI: 1.67, 10.32). Conclusion: The study found a significant association between food insecurity and mental distress. However, the mechanism by which food insecurity is associated with mental distress is not clear. Further investigation is therefore needed to understand either how food insecurity during pregnancy leads to mental distress or weather mental distress is a contributing factor in the development of food insecurity.
Keywords
SELF-REPORTING QUESTIONNAIRE, INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE, DEVELOPING-COUNTRIES, DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS, BIRTH-WEIGHT, RURAL TANZANIA, SOCIAL SUPPORT, HEALTH, VALIDATION, ANXIETY, Food insecurity, Mental distress, Pregnant women, Ethiopia

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Chicago
Jebena, Mulusew Gerbaba, Mohammed Taha, Motohiro Nakajima, Andrine Lemieux, Fikre Lemessa, Richard Hoffman, Markos Tesfaye, et al. 2015. “Household Food Insecurity and Mental Distress Among Pregnant Women in Southwestern Ethiopia : a Cross Sectional Study Design.” Bmc Pregnancy and Childbirth 15.
APA
Jebena, Mulusew Gerbaba, Taha, M., Nakajima, M., Lemieux, A., Lemessa, F., Hoffman, R., Tesfaye, M., et al. (2015). Household food insecurity and mental distress among pregnant women in Southwestern Ethiopia : a cross sectional study design. BMC PREGNANCY AND CHILDBIRTH, 15.
Vancouver
1.
Jebena MG, Taha M, Nakajima M, Lemieux A, Lemessa F, Hoffman R, et al. Household food insecurity and mental distress among pregnant women in Southwestern Ethiopia : a cross sectional study design. BMC PREGNANCY AND CHILDBIRTH. 2015;15.
MLA
Jebena, Mulusew Gerbaba, Mohammed Taha, Motohiro Nakajima, et al. “Household Food Insecurity and Mental Distress Among Pregnant Women in Southwestern Ethiopia : a Cross Sectional Study Design.” BMC PREGNANCY AND CHILDBIRTH 15 (2015): n. pag. Print.
@article{8503606,
  abstract     = {Background: There are compelling theoretical and empirical reasons that link household food insecurity to mental distress in the setting where both problems are common. However, little is known about their association during pregnancy in Ethiopia. 
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the association of household food insecurity with mental distress during pregnancy. Six hundred and forty-two pregnant women were recruited from 11 health centers and one hospital. Probability proportional to size (PPS) and consecutive sampling techniques were employed to recruit study subjects until the desired sample size was obtained. The Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) was used to measure mental distress and a 9-item Household Food Insecurity Access Scale was used to measure food security status. Descriptive and inferential statistics were computed accordingly. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of food insecurity on mental distress. 
Results: Fifty eight of the respondents (9 \%) were moderately food insecure and 144 of the respondents (22.4 \%) had mental distress. Food insecurity was also associated with mental distress. Pregnant women living in food insecure households were 4 times more likely to have mental distress than their counterparts (COR = 3.77, 95 \% CI: 2.17, 6.55). After controlling for confounders, a multivariate logistic regression model supported a link between food insecurity and mental distress (AOR = 4.15, 95 \% CI: 1.67, 10.32). 
Conclusion: The study found a significant association between food insecurity and mental distress. However, the mechanism by which food insecurity is associated with mental distress is not clear. Further investigation is therefore needed to understand either how food insecurity during pregnancy leads to mental distress or weather mental distress is a contributing factor in the development of food insecurity.},
  articleno    = {250},
  author       = {Jebena, Mulusew Gerbaba and Taha, Mohammed and Nakajima, Motohiro and Lemieux, Andrine and Lemessa, Fikre and Hoffman, Richard and Tesfaye, Markos and Belachew, Tefera and Workineh, Netsanet and Kebede, Esayas and Gemechu, Teklu and Tariku, Yinebeb and Segni, Hailemariam and Kolsteren, Patrick and al'Absi, Mustafa},
  issn         = {1471-2393},
  journal      = {BMC PREGNANCY AND CHILDBIRTH},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {9},
  title        = {Household food insecurity and mental distress among pregnant women in Southwestern Ethiopia : a cross sectional study design},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-015-0699-5},
  volume       = {15},
  year         = {2015},
}

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