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The effect of sheep breed, age, and gender on the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of monepantel, an amino-acetonitrile derivative

(2010) PARASITOLOGY RESEARCH. 106(2). p.367-375
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Abstract
This analysis investigated the influence of breed and gender on the pharmacokinetics of monepantel, and influence of breed, age, and gender on its efficacy against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. In a comparison of pharmacokinetic profiles from two studies, Merino lambs had significantly greater maximum concentrations of monepantel and monepantel sulfone, and faster times to reach these concentrations than Dorset cross lambs. Males had a statistically greater area under the curve (0-504 h) than females for monepantel sulfone. The biological relevance of these relatively small differences is unclear because efficacy was not evaluated in these studies. For efficacy, a breed effect existed for some nematodes when sheep were treated at a sub-optimum dose (1.25 mg/kg). There were no gender effects between sheep infected with adult parasites and treated at 1.25 mg/kg but there were differences between females and males treated at this dose when infected with fourth-stage larvae of Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, and Cooperia curticei. There were no breed or gender differences for sheep treated at the recommended dose (2.5 mg/kg). There was a potential trend for declining efficacy with increasing animal age for fourth-stage Trichostrongylus axei. This analysis demonstrated that, similarly to what is observed with other anthelmintics, the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of monepantel can vary with factors like breed, age, and gender. Identifying these covariates is important for understanding inter-individual variability in drug response. While further investigation is warranted, correctly treating sheep at the recommended dose of 2.5 mg/kg appears to mitigate any associated risk.
Keywords
DISPOSITION, NETOBIMIN, METABOLITES, ALBENDAZOLE SULFOXIDE ENANTIOMERS, LARVAE INFECTING SHEEP, NEMATODES, SEX

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Chicago
Hosking, Barry, Ronald Kaminsky, Heinz Sager, Daniela Karadzovska, Wolfgang Seewald, Jerome M Giraudel, and Jozef Vercruysse. 2010. “The Effect of Sheep Breed, Age, and Gender on the Pharmacokinetics and Efficacy of Monepantel, an Amino-acetonitrile Derivative.” Parasitology Research 106 (2): 367–375.
APA
Hosking, B., Kaminsky, R., Sager, H., Karadzovska, D., Seewald, W., Giraudel, J. M., & Vercruysse, J. (2010). The effect of sheep breed, age, and gender on the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of monepantel, an amino-acetonitrile derivative. PARASITOLOGY RESEARCH, 106(2), 367–375.
Vancouver
1.
Hosking B, Kaminsky R, Sager H, Karadzovska D, Seewald W, Giraudel JM, et al. The effect of sheep breed, age, and gender on the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of monepantel, an amino-acetonitrile derivative. PARASITOLOGY RESEARCH. 2010;106(2):367–75.
MLA
Hosking, Barry, Ronald Kaminsky, Heinz Sager, et al. “The Effect of Sheep Breed, Age, and Gender on the Pharmacokinetics and Efficacy of Monepantel, an Amino-acetonitrile Derivative.” PARASITOLOGY RESEARCH 106.2 (2010): 367–375. Print.
@article{850351,
  abstract     = {This analysis investigated the influence of breed and gender on the pharmacokinetics of monepantel, and influence of breed, age, and gender on its efficacy against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. In a comparison of pharmacokinetic profiles from two studies, Merino lambs had significantly greater maximum concentrations of monepantel and monepantel sulfone, and faster times to reach these concentrations than Dorset cross lambs. Males had a statistically greater area under the curve (0-504 h) than females for monepantel sulfone. The biological relevance of these relatively small differences is unclear because efficacy was not evaluated in these studies. For efficacy, a breed effect existed for some nematodes when sheep were treated at a sub-optimum dose (1.25 mg/kg). There were no gender effects between sheep infected with adult parasites and treated at 1.25 mg/kg but there were differences between females and males treated at this dose when infected with fourth-stage larvae of Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, and Cooperia curticei. There were no breed or gender differences for sheep treated at the recommended dose (2.5 mg/kg). There was a potential trend for declining efficacy with increasing animal age for fourth-stage Trichostrongylus axei. This analysis demonstrated that, similarly to what is observed with other anthelmintics, the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of monepantel can vary with factors like breed, age, and gender. Identifying these covariates is important for understanding inter-individual variability in drug response. While further investigation is warranted, correctly treating sheep at the recommended dose of 2.5 mg/kg appears to mitigate any associated risk.},
  author       = {Hosking, Barry and Kaminsky, Ronald and Sager, Heinz and Karadzovska, Daniela and Seewald, Wolfgang and Giraudel, Jerome M and Vercruysse, Jozef},
  issn         = {0932-0113},
  journal      = {PARASITOLOGY RESEARCH},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {367--375},
  title        = {The effect of sheep breed, age, and gender on the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of monepantel, an amino-acetonitrile derivative},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-009-1671-y},
  volume       = {106},
  year         = {2010},
}

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