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Abstract
In most studies of dust in galaxies, dust is only detected from its emission to approximately the optical radius of the galaxy. By combining the signal of 110 spiral galaxies observed as part of the Herschel Reference Survey, we are able to improve our sensitivity by an order of magnitude over that for a single object. Here we report the direct detection of dust from its emission that extends out to at least twice the optical radius. We find that the distribution of dust is consistent with an exponential at all radii with a gradient of similar to-1.7 dex R-25(-1). Our dust temperature declines linearly from similar to 25 K in the centre to 15 K at R-25 from where it remains constant out to similar to 2.0 R-25. The surface density of dust declines with radius at a similar rate to the surface density of stars but more slowly than the surface density of the star-formation rate. Studies based on dust extinction and reddening of high-redshift quasars have concluded that there are substantial amounts of dust in intergalactic space. By combining our results with the number counts and angular correlation function from the SDSS, we show that with Milky Way-type dust we can explain the reddening of the quasars by the dust within galactic discs alone. Given the uncertainties in the properties of any intergalactic dust, we cannot rule out its existence, but our results show that statistical investigations of the dust in galactic haloes that use the reddening of high-redshift objects must take account of the dust in galactic discs.
Keywords
galaxies: ISM, galaxies: spiral, submillimetre: ISM, HERSCHEL REFERENCE SURVEY, DIGITAL SKY SURVEY, MG II ABSORPTION, NEARBY GALAXIES, COLD DUST, INTERMEDIATE-REDSHIFT, ABSORBING GALAXIES, MAGELLANIC-CLOUD, SPIRAL GALAXIES, NUMBER COUNTS

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Citation

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MLA
Smith, Matthew WL et al. “Far-reaching Dust Distribution in Galaxy Discs.” MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 462.1 (2016): 331–344. Print.
APA
Smith, M. W., Eales, S. A., De Looze, I., Baes, M., Bendo, G. J., Bianchi, S., Boquien, M., et al. (2016). Far-reaching dust distribution in galaxy discs. MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, 462(1), 331–344.
Chicago author-date
Smith, Matthew WL, Stephen A Eales, Ilse De Looze, Maarten Baes, George J Bendo, Simone Bianchi, Médéric Boquien, et al. 2016. “Far-reaching Dust Distribution in Galaxy Discs.” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 462 (1): 331–344.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Smith, Matthew WL, Stephen A Eales, Ilse De Looze, Maarten Baes, George J Bendo, Simone Bianchi, Médéric Boquien, Alessandro Boselli, Veronique Buat, Laure Ciesla, Marcel Clemens, David L Clements, Asantha R Cooray, Luca Cortese, Jonathan I Davies, Jacopo Fritz, Haley L Gomez, Thomas Hughes, Oskar Ł Karczewski, Nanyao Lu, Seb J Oliver, Aurélie Remy-Ruyer, Luigi Spinoglio, and Sébastien Viaene. 2016. “Far-reaching Dust Distribution in Galaxy Discs.” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 462 (1): 331–344.
Vancouver
1.
Smith MW, Eales SA, De Looze I, Baes M, Bendo GJ, Bianchi S, et al. Far-reaching dust distribution in galaxy discs. MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY. 2016;462(1):331–44.
IEEE
[1]
M. W. Smith et al., “Far-reaching dust distribution in galaxy discs,” MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, vol. 462, no. 1, pp. 331–344, 2016.
@article{8503160,
  abstract     = {In most studies of dust in galaxies, dust is only detected from its emission to approximately the optical radius of the galaxy. By combining the signal of 110 spiral galaxies observed as part of the Herschel Reference Survey, we are able to improve our sensitivity by an order of magnitude over that for a single object. Here we report the direct detection of dust from its emission that extends out to at least twice the optical radius. We find that the distribution of dust is consistent with an exponential at all radii with a gradient of similar to-1.7 dex R-25(-1). Our dust temperature declines linearly from similar to 25 K in the centre to 15 K at R-25 from where it remains constant out to similar to 2.0 R-25. The surface density of dust declines with radius at a similar rate to the surface density of stars but more slowly than the surface density of the star-formation rate. Studies based on dust extinction and reddening of high-redshift quasars have concluded that there are substantial amounts of dust in intergalactic space. By combining our results with the number counts and angular correlation function from the SDSS, we show that with Milky Way-type dust we can explain the reddening of the quasars by the dust within galactic discs alone. Given the uncertainties in the properties of any intergalactic dust, we cannot rule out its existence, but our results show that statistical investigations of the dust in galactic haloes that use the reddening of high-redshift objects must take account of the dust in galactic discs.},
  author       = {Smith, Matthew WL and Eales, Stephen A and De Looze, Ilse and Baes, Maarten and Bendo, George J and Bianchi, Simone and Boquien, Médéric and Boselli, Alessandro and Buat, Veronique and Ciesla, Laure and Clemens, Marcel and Clements, David L and Cooray, Asantha R and Cortese, Luca and Davies, Jonathan I and Fritz, Jacopo and Gomez, Haley L and Hughes, Thomas and Karczewski, Oskar Ł and Lu, Nanyao and Oliver, Seb J and Remy-Ruyer, Aurélie and Spinoglio, Luigi and Viaene, Sébastien},
  issn         = {0035-8711},
  journal      = {MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY},
  keywords     = {galaxies: ISM,galaxies: spiral,submillimetre: ISM,HERSCHEL REFERENCE SURVEY,DIGITAL SKY SURVEY,MG II ABSORPTION,NEARBY GALAXIES,COLD DUST,INTERMEDIATE-REDSHIFT,ABSORBING GALAXIES,MAGELLANIC-CLOUD,SPIRAL GALAXIES,NUMBER COUNTS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {331--344},
  title        = {Far-reaching dust distribution in galaxy discs},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stw1611},
  volume       = {462},
  year         = {2016},
}

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