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Congenital bilateral aplasia of the metacarpophalangeal joints in a foal

M Jordana, Ann Martens (UGent) , Leen Van Brantegem (UGent) and Koen Chiers (UGent)
(2016) EQUINE VETERINARY EDUCATION. 28(8). p.444-447
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Abstract
A 2-day-old Warmblood filly was presented for examination of an angular limb deformity of the left front limb and an upright conformation of both metacarpophalangeal joints. Radiological examination revealed bilateral absence of the metacarpophalangeal joint space with fusion of the third metacarpal bone and first phalanx (synostosis). No treatment was undertaken. The filly was readmitted to the clinic 10 weeks later for bilateral front limb lameness. On radiological examination, the synostosis of the front metacarpophalangeal joints was still present. Physitis of the distal growth plate of the right third metacarpal bone and proximal growth plate of the right proximal phalanx, and an avulsion fracture of the palmaromedial and proximal aspect of the left middle phalanx, with a cystic like lesion on the medial aspect of distal first phalanx and proximal middle phalanx were diagnosed. Given the poor prognosis, the foal was subjected to euthanasia. Post mortem examination confirmed the absence of the metacarpophalangeal joint space with a trabecular bony union between the third metacarpal bone and the first phalanx. A rudimentary joint capsule was present at the level of the absent joints as well as a small zone of articular cartilage, which invaginated over a short distance into the dorsal trabecular bone on the right front limb. On the medial aspect of the left proximal interphalangeal joint, a focal defect of articular cartilage with exposure of subchondral bone was observed. This is the first case report of a foal born with congenital aplasia of both metacarpophalangeal joints. Congenital malformations should be considered as differential diagnosis in lame foals or foals born with angular or flexural limb deformities.
Keywords
horse, congenital anomaly, synostosis, aplasia, fetlock, foal, joint, ARTICULAR-CARTILAGE FORMATION, PHALANGEAL HYPOPLASIA, SURGICAL-CORRECTION, SYNOVIAL JOINT, SKELETOGENESIS, POLYDACTYLISM, ANOMALIES, AGENESIS, LIMBS

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Chicago
Jordana, M, Ann Martens, Leen Van Brantegem, and Koen Chiers. 2016. “Congenital Bilateral Aplasia of the Metacarpophalangeal Joints in a Foal.” Equine Veterinary Education 28 (8): 444–447.
APA
Jordana, M., Martens, A., Van Brantegem, L., & Chiers, K. (2016). Congenital bilateral aplasia of the metacarpophalangeal joints in a foal. EQUINE VETERINARY EDUCATION, 28(8), 444–447.
Vancouver
1.
Jordana M, Martens A, Van Brantegem L, Chiers K. Congenital bilateral aplasia of the metacarpophalangeal joints in a foal. EQUINE VETERINARY EDUCATION. 2016;28(8):444–7.
MLA
Jordana, M, Ann Martens, Leen Van Brantegem, et al. “Congenital Bilateral Aplasia of the Metacarpophalangeal Joints in a Foal.” EQUINE VETERINARY EDUCATION 28.8 (2016): 444–447. Print.
@article{8502270,
  abstract     = {A 2-day-old Warmblood filly was presented for examination of an angular limb deformity of the left front limb and an upright conformation of both metacarpophalangeal joints. Radiological examination revealed bilateral absence of the metacarpophalangeal joint space with fusion of the third metacarpal bone and first phalanx (synostosis). No treatment was undertaken. The filly was readmitted to the clinic 10 weeks later for bilateral front limb lameness. On radiological examination, the synostosis of the front metacarpophalangeal joints was still present. Physitis of the distal growth plate of the right third metacarpal bone and proximal growth plate of the right proximal phalanx, and an avulsion fracture of the palmaromedial and proximal aspect of the left middle phalanx, with a cystic like lesion on the medial aspect of distal first phalanx and proximal middle phalanx were diagnosed. Given the poor prognosis, the foal was subjected to euthanasia. Post mortem examination confirmed the absence of the metacarpophalangeal joint space with a trabecular bony union between the third metacarpal bone and the first phalanx. A rudimentary joint capsule was present at the level of the absent joints as well as a small zone of articular cartilage, which invaginated over a short distance into the dorsal trabecular bone on the right front limb. On the medial aspect of the left proximal interphalangeal joint, a focal defect of articular cartilage with exposure of subchondral bone was observed. This is the first case report of a foal born with congenital aplasia of both metacarpophalangeal joints. Congenital malformations should be considered as differential diagnosis in lame foals or foals born with angular or flexural limb deformities.},
  author       = {Jordana, M and Martens, Ann and Van Brantegem, Leen and Chiers, Koen},
  issn         = {0957-7734},
  journal      = {EQUINE VETERINARY EDUCATION},
  keyword      = {horse,congenital anomaly,synostosis,aplasia,fetlock,foal,joint,ARTICULAR-CARTILAGE FORMATION,PHALANGEAL HYPOPLASIA,SURGICAL-CORRECTION,SYNOVIAL JOINT,SKELETOGENESIS,POLYDACTYLISM,ANOMALIES,AGENESIS,LIMBS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {8},
  pages        = {444--447},
  title        = {Congenital bilateral aplasia of the metacarpophalangeal joints in a foal},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eve.12223},
  volume       = {28},
  year         = {2016},
}

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