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Microprocessors used in safety-critical systems are extremely sensitive to software vulnerabilities, as their failure can lead to injury, damage to equipment, or environmental catastrophe. This paper proposes a hardware-based security architecture for microprocessors used in safety-critical systems. The proposed architecture provides protection against code injection and code reuse attacks. It has mechanisms to protect software integrity, perform control flow integrity, prevent execution of tampered code, and enforce copyright protection. We are the first to propose a mechanism to enforce control flow integrity at the finest possible granularity. The proposed architectural features were added to the LEON3 open source soft microprocessor, and were evaluated on an FPGA running a software benchmark. The results show that the hardware area is 28.2% larger and the clock is 84.6% slower, while the software benchmark has a cycle overhead of 13.7% and a total execution time overhead of 110% when compared to an unmodified processor.

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Citation

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MLA
de Clercq, Ruan et al. “SOFIA : Software and Control Flow Integrity Architecture.” PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2016 DESIGN, AUTOMATION & TEST IN EUROPE CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION (DATE). New york: Ieee, 2016. 1172–1177. Print.
APA
de Clercq, R., De Keulenaer, R., Coppens, B., Yang, B., Maene, P., De Bosschere, K., Preneel, B., et al. (2016). SOFIA : software and control flow integrity architecture. PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2016 DESIGN, AUTOMATION & TEST IN EUROPE CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION (DATE) (pp. 1172–1177). Presented at the Design, Automation and Test in Europe Conference and Exhibition (DATE), New york: Ieee.
Chicago author-date
de Clercq, Ruan, Ronald De Keulenaer, Bart Coppens, Bohan Yang, Pieter Maene, Koen De Bosschere, Bart Preneel, Bjorn De Sutter, and Ingrid Verbauwhede. 2016. “SOFIA : Software and Control Flow Integrity Architecture.” In PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2016 DESIGN, AUTOMATION & TEST IN EUROPE CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION (DATE), 1172–1177. New york: Ieee.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
de Clercq, Ruan, Ronald De Keulenaer, Bart Coppens, Bohan Yang, Pieter Maene, Koen De Bosschere, Bart Preneel, Bjorn De Sutter, and Ingrid Verbauwhede. 2016. “SOFIA : Software and Control Flow Integrity Architecture.” In PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2016 DESIGN, AUTOMATION & TEST IN EUROPE CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION (DATE), 1172–1177. New york: Ieee.
Vancouver
1.
de Clercq R, De Keulenaer R, Coppens B, Yang B, Maene P, De Bosschere K, et al. SOFIA : software and control flow integrity architecture. PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2016 DESIGN, AUTOMATION & TEST IN EUROPE CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION (DATE). New york: Ieee; 2016. p. 1172–7.
IEEE
[1]
R. de Clercq et al., “SOFIA : software and control flow integrity architecture,” in PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2016 DESIGN, AUTOMATION & TEST IN EUROPE CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION (DATE), Dresden, GERMANY, 2016, pp. 1172–1177.
@inproceedings{8502001,
  abstract     = {Microprocessors used in safety-critical systems are extremely sensitive to software vulnerabilities, as their failure can lead to injury, damage to equipment, or environmental catastrophe. This paper proposes a hardware-based security architecture for microprocessors used in safety-critical systems. The proposed architecture provides protection against code injection and code reuse attacks. It has mechanisms to protect software integrity, perform control flow integrity, prevent execution of tampered code, and enforce copyright protection. We are the first to propose a mechanism to enforce control flow integrity at the finest possible granularity. The proposed architectural features were added to the LEON3 open source soft microprocessor, and were evaluated on an FPGA running a software benchmark. The results show that the hardware area is 28.2% larger and the clock is 84.6% slower, while the software benchmark has a cycle overhead of 13.7% and a total execution time overhead of 110% when compared to an unmodified processor.},
  author       = {de Clercq, Ruan and De Keulenaer, Ronald and Coppens, Bart and Yang, Bohan and Maene, Pieter and De Bosschere, Koen and Preneel, Bart and De Sutter, Bjorn and Verbauwhede, Ingrid},
  booktitle    = {PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2016 DESIGN, AUTOMATION & TEST IN EUROPE CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION (DATE)},
  isbn         = {978-3-9815-3707-9},
  issn         = {1530-1591},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Dresden, GERMANY},
  pages        = {1172--1177},
  publisher    = {Ieee},
  title        = {SOFIA : software and control flow integrity architecture},
  year         = {2016},
}

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