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Systemic sclerosis : markers and targeted treatments

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Organization
Abstract
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is characterized by autoantibody production, progressive microvasculopathy, and aberrant extracellular matrix protein (ECM) synthesis in tissues. The disease presents two major clinical hallmarks: Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) and skin involvement, followed by varying prevalences of internal organ involvement. Despite significant advances in the management of certain organ-specific involvements and symptoms, the research for efficient markers and targets, to be used for an optimized treatment, is still ongoing. Therapies targeting the vasculature (i.e. ET-1 receptor antagonists, phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, prostacyclins), the immune system and/or the fibrotic process (i.e. traditional disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs DMARDs such as methotrexate, cyclosporine or mycophenolate mofetil, biologicals like rituximab, tocilizumab or abatacept) have been or are being evaluated in SSc. Advanced approaches, reserved to unresponsive SSc patients, include autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSTC) and intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG). Interestingly, it is expected that new and future possible diagnostic and therapeutical approaches in SSc will come from epigenetic studies (MicroRNAs). Ideally, combination therapy in SSc seems the best approach, together with the early intervention on the major hallmarks of the disease in "at risk" patients, that consists of the microvascular damage/altered function and the autoimmune reaction, followed by the progressive and systemic fibrotic process.
Keywords
Systemic sclerosis, Capillaroscopy, Raynaud phenomenon, Targeted therapies, Connective tissue diseases, Autoimmune diseases, PRIMARY RAYNAUDS-PHENOMENON, CONNECTIVE-TISSUE DISEASE, SEVERE ORGAN INVOLVEMENT, GROWTH-FACTOR-BETA, NAILFOLD CAPILLAROSCOPY, PULMONARY-FIBROSIS, MESENCHYMAL TRANSITION, MICROVASCULAR DAMAGE, AUTOANTIBODIES, PATHOGENESIS

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

MLA
Cutolo, M, A Sulli, C Pizzorni, et al. “Systemic Sclerosis : Markers and Targeted Treatments.” ACTA REUMATOLOGICA PORTUGUESA 41.1 (2016): 18–25. Print.
APA
Cutolo, M, Sulli, A., Pizzorni, C., Paolino, S., & Smith, V. (2016). Systemic sclerosis : markers and targeted treatments. ACTA REUMATOLOGICA PORTUGUESA, 41(1), 18–25.
Chicago author-date
Cutolo, M, A Sulli, C Pizzorni, S Paolino, and Vanessa Smith. 2016. “Systemic Sclerosis : Markers and Targeted Treatments.” Acta Reumatologica Portuguesa 41 (1): 18–25.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Cutolo, M, A Sulli, C Pizzorni, S Paolino, and Vanessa Smith. 2016. “Systemic Sclerosis : Markers and Targeted Treatments.” Acta Reumatologica Portuguesa 41 (1): 18–25.
Vancouver
1.
Cutolo M, Sulli A, Pizzorni C, Paolino S, Smith V. Systemic sclerosis : markers and targeted treatments. ACTA REUMATOLOGICA PORTUGUESA. 2016;41(1):18–25.
IEEE
[1]
M. Cutolo, A. Sulli, C. Pizzorni, S. Paolino, and V. Smith, “Systemic sclerosis : markers and targeted treatments,” ACTA REUMATOLOGICA PORTUGUESA, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 18–25, 2016.
@article{8501206,
  abstract     = {Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is characterized by autoantibody production, progressive microvasculopathy, and aberrant extracellular matrix protein (ECM) synthesis in tissues. The disease presents two major clinical hallmarks: Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) and skin involvement, followed by varying prevalences of internal organ involvement. Despite significant advances in the management of certain organ-specific involvements and symptoms, the research for efficient markers and targets, to be used for an optimized treatment, is still ongoing. Therapies targeting the vasculature (i.e. ET-1 receptor antagonists, phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, prostacyclins), the immune system and/or the fibrotic process (i.e. traditional disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs DMARDs such as methotrexate, cyclosporine or mycophenolate mofetil, biologicals like rituximab, tocilizumab or abatacept) have been or are being evaluated in SSc. Advanced approaches, reserved to unresponsive SSc patients, include autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSTC) and intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG). Interestingly, it is expected that new and future possible diagnostic and therapeutical approaches in SSc will come from epigenetic studies (MicroRNAs). 
Ideally, combination therapy in SSc seems the best approach, together with the early intervention on the major hallmarks of the disease in "at risk" patients, that consists of the microvascular damage/altered function and the autoimmune reaction, followed by the progressive and systemic fibrotic process.},
  author       = {Cutolo, M and Sulli, A and Pizzorni, C and Paolino, S and Smith, Vanessa},
  issn         = {0303-464X},
  journal      = {ACTA REUMATOLOGICA PORTUGUESA},
  keywords     = {Systemic sclerosis,Capillaroscopy,Raynaud phenomenon,Targeted therapies,Connective tissue diseases,Autoimmune diseases,PRIMARY RAYNAUDS-PHENOMENON,CONNECTIVE-TISSUE DISEASE,SEVERE ORGAN INVOLVEMENT,GROWTH-FACTOR-BETA,NAILFOLD CAPILLAROSCOPY,PULMONARY-FIBROSIS,MESENCHYMAL TRANSITION,MICROVASCULAR DAMAGE,AUTOANTIBODIES,PATHOGENESIS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {18--25},
  title        = {Systemic sclerosis : markers and targeted treatments},
  volume       = {41},
  year         = {2016},
}

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