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The impact of deoxynivalenol on pigeon health : occurrence in feed, toxicokinetics and interaction with salmonellosis

Gunther Antonissen (UGent) , Roel Haesendonck (UGent) , Mathias Devreese (UGent) , Nathan Broekaert (UGent) , Elin Verbrugghe (UGent) , Sarah De Saeger (UGent) , Kris Audenaert (UGent) , Freddy Haesebrouck (UGent) , Frank Pasmans (UGent) , Richard Ducatelle (UGent) , et al.
(2016) PLOS ONE. 11(12).
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Abstract
Seed-based pigeon diets could be expected to result in exposure of pigeons to mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). Ingestion of low to moderate contamination levels of DON may impair intestinal health, immune function and/or pathogen fitness, resulting in altered host-pathogen interactions and thus different outcome of infections. Here we demonstrate that DON was one of the most frequently detected mycotoxins in seed-based racing pigeons feed, contaminating 5 out of 10 samples (range 177-1,466 mu g/kg). Subsequently, a toxicokinetic analysis revealed a low absolute oral bioavailability (F) of DON in pigeons (30.4%), which is comparable to other avian species. Furthermore, semi-quantitative analysis using high-resolution mass spectrometry revealed that DON-3 alpha-sulphate is the major metabolite of DON in pigeons after intravenous as well as oral administration. Following ingestion of DON contaminated feed, the intestinal epithelial cells are exposed to significant DON concentrations which eventually may affect intestinal translocation and colonization of bacteria. Feeding pigeons a DON contaminated diet resulted in an increased percentage of pigeons shedding Salmonella compared to birds fed control diet, 87 +/- 17% versus 74 +/- 13%, respectively. However, no impact of DON was observed on the Salmonella induced disease signs, organ lesions, faecal and organ Salmonella counts. The presented risk assessment indicates that pigeons are frequently exposed to mycotoxins such as DON, which can affect the outcome of a Salmonella infection. The increasing number of pigeons shedding Salmonella suggests that DON can promote the spread of the bacterium within pigeon populations.
Keywords
LC-MS/MS METHOD, T-2 TOXIN, BROILER-CHICKENS, ORAL BIOAVAILABILITY, MYCOTOXINS, TYPHIMURIUM, TOXICITY, FOOD, FUMONISINS, RESISTANCE

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Chicago
Antonissen, Gunther, Roel Haesendonck, Mathias Devreese, Nathan Broekaert, Elin Verbrugghe, Sarah De Saeger, Kris Audenaert, et al. 2016. “The Impact of Deoxynivalenol on Pigeon Health : Occurrence in Feed, Toxicokinetics and Interaction with Salmonellosis.” Plos One 11 (12).
APA
Antonissen, G., Haesendonck, R., Devreese, M., Broekaert, N., Verbrugghe, E., De Saeger, S., Audenaert, K., et al. (2016). The impact of deoxynivalenol on pigeon health : occurrence in feed, toxicokinetics and interaction with salmonellosis. PLOS ONE, 11(12).
Vancouver
1.
Antonissen G, Haesendonck R, Devreese M, Broekaert N, Verbrugghe E, De Saeger S, et al. The impact of deoxynivalenol on pigeon health : occurrence in feed, toxicokinetics and interaction with salmonellosis. PLOS ONE. 2016;11(12).
MLA
Antonissen, Gunther, Roel Haesendonck, Mathias Devreese, et al. “The Impact of Deoxynivalenol on Pigeon Health : Occurrence in Feed, Toxicokinetics and Interaction with Salmonellosis.” PLOS ONE 11.12 (2016): n. pag. Print.
@article{8501124,
  abstract     = {Seed-based pigeon diets could be expected to result in exposure of pigeons to mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). Ingestion of low to moderate contamination levels of DON may impair intestinal health, immune function and/or pathogen fitness, resulting in altered host-pathogen interactions and thus different outcome of infections. Here we demonstrate that DON was one of the most frequently detected mycotoxins in seed-based racing pigeons feed, contaminating 5 out of 10 samples (range 177-1,466 mu g/kg). Subsequently, a toxicokinetic analysis revealed a low absolute oral bioavailability (F) of DON in pigeons (30.4\%), which is comparable to other avian species. Furthermore, semi-quantitative analysis using high-resolution mass spectrometry revealed that DON-3 alpha-sulphate is the major metabolite of DON in pigeons after intravenous as well as oral administration. Following ingestion of DON contaminated feed, the intestinal epithelial cells are exposed to significant DON concentrations which eventually may affect intestinal translocation and colonization of bacteria. Feeding pigeons a DON contaminated diet resulted in an increased percentage of pigeons shedding Salmonella compared to birds fed control diet, 87 +/- 17\% versus 74 +/- 13\%, respectively. However, no impact of DON was observed on the Salmonella induced disease signs, organ lesions, faecal and organ Salmonella counts. The presented risk assessment indicates that pigeons are frequently exposed to mycotoxins such as DON, which can affect the outcome of a Salmonella infection. The increasing number of pigeons shedding Salmonella suggests that DON can promote the spread of the bacterium within pigeon populations.},
  articleno    = {e0168205},
  author       = {Antonissen, Gunther and Haesendonck, Roel and Devreese, Mathias and Broekaert, Nathan and Verbrugghe, Elin and De Saeger, Sarah and Audenaert, Kris and Haesebrouck, Freddy and Pasmans, Frank and Ducatelle, Richard and Croubels, Siska and Martel, An},
  issn         = {1932-6203},
  journal      = {PLOS ONE},
  keyword      = {LC-MS/MS METHOD,T-2 TOXIN,BROILER-CHICKENS,ORAL BIOAVAILABILITY,MYCOTOXINS,TYPHIMURIUM,TOXICITY,FOOD,FUMONISINS,RESISTANCE},
  number       = {12},
  pages        = {14},
  title        = {The impact of deoxynivalenol on pigeon health : occurrence in feed, toxicokinetics and interaction with salmonellosis},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168205},
  volume       = {11},
  year         = {2016},
}

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